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Donald L Smitn 

TransWorid Energy, CEO 

September 23, 2002 

Fax/Phone 281-37CM547 and e-mail 


Page 1 of 1''smith_c(Ml2.jf>g 





The Invention relates to loaded Dipole Antenna Systems and their flectromagnetic 
5 radiation. When used as a transformer with an appropriate energy cottector system 
it becomes a transformer generator. The invention cotlects and converts 
energy which, with conventional devices is radiated and wasted. 

An International search of Patent Data Base's for closely related methods did not 
10 reveal any prior Art with an Interest in conserving radiated and wasted mag- 
netic waves as useful energy. 

The Invention is a new and useful departure from transformer generator construc- 
tion, such that radiated and wasted magnetic energy changes into useful electrical 
15 energy. Gauss Meters show that much energy from conventional electromagnetic 
devices is radiated back into the ambient background as wasted. In the case of 
conventional transformer generators, a radical change in trie physical construction 
allows better access to the energy available. It is found that creating a dipole and 
inserting capacitor plates at right angle to the current flow allows magnetic waves to 
20 change back to useful electrical ( coulombs ) energy. Magnetic waves passing 
through the capacitor plates do not degrade and the full impact of the available 
energy is accessed. One or many sets of capacitor plates as desired may be used. 
Each set makes an exact copy of the full force and effect of the energy present in the 

Page i of 5 

1 magnetic waves. The originating source is not depleted or degraded as 
is common in conventional transformers. 
The Dipole at right angle allows the magnetic flux surrounding it to intercept the 

5 capacitor plate or plates at right angle. The electrons present are spun such that 
the electrical component of electron is coJiected by the capacitor plates. Essential 
parts are the South and North component of an actrve Dipole. Examples here 
presented exist as fully functional prototypes and were engineer constructed 
and fully tested for utility by the Inventor. Corresponding parts are utilized in 

10 each of the three examples as shown in the Drawings. 
N = North and S = South of the Dipole 

1, North and South component of the Dipole. 

2. Resonate High Voltage induction coil. 
15 3. Di poles electromagnetic wave emission. 

4. Heaviside current component 

5. Dielectric separator for the capacitor plates 

6. For purposes of the drawing, a virtual limit of the electromagnetic 
wave energy. 

20 7. Capacitor plates, with dielectric in between. 

1. Hole for mounting Dipole B-l. 

Page 2 of 5 


2. Resonate high vottage induction coil. 

5. Dielectric separator, a thin sheet of plastic separating the capacitor 

7. Capacitor sheets, upper is aluminum and lower is copper 

8. Battery system, deep cycte. 

9. Inverter input Direct Current, output is 120 Volts at 60 cycles. 
10. Connector wires. 

12. Output to point of use being the load, 
2-B N - North and S = South component of the Dipole 

1, Metal rod, being soft magnetic metal such as iron. 

2. Resonate high voltage induction coil. 

10. Connector wires. 

11. High Voltage input energy source such as a neon tube transformer 
15 DRAWING 3 OF 4 : Proof of Principal Device using a Plasma Tube as an 

active Dipole, 
N ■ North and S = South Components of the active Dipole. 
5. Dielectric separator of the capacitor plates. 
7. Upper capacitor plate, upper being aluminum and lower being copper. 
20 10. Connector wires. 

15. Plasma Tube, 4 feet Length and 6 inches diameter, 

16. High Voltage Energy source for the active Plasma Dipole. 

17. Connector block, to outlet for testing and use. 

DRAWING 4 OF 4 : Manufactures Prototype, Constructed and fully tested. 
1. Metal Dipole rod. 

Page 3 of 5 

1 2. Resonate High Voltage induction coil. 

10. ConnectOf wires. 

17, Connedor block for input from high voltage energy source. 

18. damps for upper edge of capacitor packet. 

5 19. Support Device for The Dipole Transformer Generator. 

20. Packet of Capacitor Plates. 

21. Output connectors of the capadtor, podudng energy into a 
deep cyde battery which then powers the inverter. 

10 The Invention is applicable to any and a« electrical energy requirements. 
The small size and it's high efficiency makes it an attractive option. It is 
particularly attractive for remote areas, homes, office buildings, factories, 
shopping centers, public places, transportation, water systems, electric 
trains, boats, ships and all things small or great ConstrucrJon materials 
15 are commonly available and the skill level required is moderate. 

1. Radiated magnetic flux from the Dipole when intercepted by 
capacitor plates at right angle, changes to useful electrical energy. 

2. A Device and method for converting for use, normally wasted 
20 electromagnetic energy. 

3. The Dipole of the Invention is any resonating substance such as 
Metal Rods, Coils and Plasma Tubes which have interacting 
Posrjve and Negative Componets. 

4. The Resulting Heavyside current component is changed to useful 
electrical energy. 

Page 4of5 




A Electromagnetic Dipole Device and Method, wherein radiated and wasted 
energy is transformed into useful energy, A Dipole as seen in Antenna 
Systems is adapted for use with capacitor pfates such that the 
Heavyside Current Componet becomes a useful source of electrical 

Page 5 of 5 

Dipole Transformer Generator 

Not to Scale View of Method 

Dipole Transformer Generator 

DRAWING 2 of 4 
Not to Scale Components 




Dipole Transformer Generator 

DRAWING 3 of 4 
Not to Scale Proof of Principle Device 



Dipole Transformer Generator 

DRAWING 4 of 4 
Not to Scale Manufacture's Prototype 


TransWorld Energy 

227 W, Atrtex Bfvd 
Houston, Tx. 77090 

September 23, 2002 

Phone: (28 1 )876-9200 Web-Site : altenergy-pro. com 

Fax: (281)876-9216 E-mail donsmli^m 

Dear Reader: 

TransWorld Energy is dedicated to improving the Human Condition in the Field of Energy which 
at the same time makes possible Healthy Water and increases the Food Supply, A never ending 
source of energy found throughout die universe is easily accessed with the minimum of effort and 
cost. The technology for doing this has been around since the 1820's. Selfish special interest has 
made sure that the technology remains discredited. People who control the Energy Sources 
control the World. 

Extensive research and development by TransWorld and Associates has been progressing for 
more than 15 years. Numerous successful Energy Producing Devices have been produced and 
demonstrated throughout the World. Some of these can be viewed by the Web Site located 
at all major search engines (Such as Lycos, Yahoo, Aha vista, NorthenLight and more than 
2,000 others throughout the World). 

The Book which You are viewing has more than 40,000 copies in circulation. It has been 
translated and distributed in all major languages including Japanese, Arabic, Portuguese, 
French, Italian, Russian, Chinese,. German, Spanish and many more. There arc se% r en editions 
in circulation. An enormous interest is evident in the subject matter. An average of fifty e-mails 
per day from the ends of the Earth (about 1 ,500 per month) 

Once the Web Site and the book arc viewed, it will become evident that abundant, self 
sustainable energy is available every where for the taking. This is natural energy which docs 
not harm the environment or those using it. The proper Device for Collecting is all that's 

The Good News is that the problem is solved and with assistance an ultimate source of energy 
that is environmentally benign, in abundance throughout the universe and inexpensive to capture 
is there for the taking, 

Thank You for your consideration 

Donald L. Smith, CEO 

Electrical Energy Generating System 

Description and Function: 

Generation of Electrical Power requires the presence of electrons with various methods 
of stimulation, yielding magnetic and electrical impulses, collectively resulting in 
Electrical Energy { Power ). In place of the mechanical - coils and magnet system, 
present in conventional electrical power generation, visible moving parts are replaced by 
resonate magnetic induction, using radio frequency. Transfer of energy by resonate 
induction is related to the ratio of the square of the cycles per second. 

The Energy System, here presented, operates at millions of cycles per second verses 
the conventional 60 C.P.S.'s. This tells us that it has a size advantage over conventional 
methods. The same advantage applies to the amount of electrical energy output. 
Therefore the Device is small in si/.e and produces large amounts of Electrical Energy. 
The Electrons acquired are from the surrounding Air and Earth Groundings, being 
the same source as in conventional methods. This is accomplished by magnetic 
resonate radio induction. 


This Electrical System adapts nicely to all Energy Requirements. It is a direct 

replacement to all now existing Energy Systems. This includes such things as 

Manufacturing, Agricultural, Home Usage, Office Complexes, Shopping Centers, 

Rail Transportation, Automobiles, Electrical Power Grids, Municipalities, Subdivisions, 

and Remote Areas. Briefly, only the imagination is the limiting factor. 

Economic Possibilities: 

No Historical Reference Point exist for a comparison of the Possibilities of this System. 
One can see from the impacted applications listed above that the magnitude exceeds 
any known invention, presently a part of the Human Experience, 

Present and Future Plans: 

The Energy System has been in the developmental stage during the past seven years. 
It is Patent Pending # OS/ 100,074 with the Patent Office, No prior art exist based 
on the Patent Office response. The System is presently being introduced into 
the World Market. 

Useful energy occurs as the result of imbalances of ambient and is a 
transient phenomena, in the electrical field it is a closed system subject to 
heat death , which severely limits its utility . The flip side of the electron 
produces magnetic waves which are an open system , not subject to heat 
death , These waves being unrestricted are the universal source of energy . 
When resonate unlimited duplicates from this one source are available . 
Therefor the key to unlimited energy is Magnetic Resonance . In order to 
understand this requires putting a stake through the Heart of Antique 
Physics. Nonlinear and Open Systems are universally available in Magnetic 
Resonance Systems , Explosions of any sort [ includes Atomic ] Combustibles 
of any type . Mechanical equivalents would be levers . pulleys and 
hydraulics . A highly obvious example is the Piano where the Key impacts 
the one note giving one sound level , which resonates with it's two side 
keys providing a much higher level . Magnetic Resonance Energy clearly 
amplifies it's self demonstrating more energy out than in . 

Obmic resistance does no apply to Magnetic Resonance which travels 
unrestricted for great distances , therefore multitudes of electrons are 
disturbed, who's back spin translates magnetic into usable electric energy . 
The right angle component of the magnetic flux provides - translates into 
useful electrical energy . Taken at right angle the Magnetic Dipole provides 
an unlimited source of electrical energy . The writer recognized world wide 
for his knowledge and experience. See his Web Site at 
altenergy-proxom . 

Gravity is a function of spin phenonm as observed in gravity separatation of 
liquids Whin spun milk and cream separates . Therefor relative specific gravity 
is function mass verses spin . Magnetic' s and gravity are both spin related . 
In part spinning a top levitates when spun . Therefor spinning magnetic fields 
Are a functional motor source as in flying saucer's . 

ABSTRACT: Technology of New Energy: 

Developments in understanding of Electricity and Materials not 
previously available allows construction of Devices which collect 
energy from the Earth's Ambient Electrical Background in large 
quantities. This Energy is naturally occurring, is environmentally 
benign and available everywhere. Ifs available where ever and 
whenever required. New Devices use Resonate Magnetic Waves 
which replicate upon spinning the locally present electrons, 
providing multiple duplicate copies of the Energy Present. Each 
electron when spun yields both magnetic and electric waves in 
equal proportion. The electrical component is a closed system 
limited by Ohms Law. The magnetic component is an open 
system not limited and replicates multiple copies of the energy 
present. Special materials and recent development allow the 
magnetic energy to reproduce through resonance, unlimited 
duplicate copies, acquired from the ambient background. These 
Devices harvest the energy that has and is always present 
universally. Conventional methods consist of coils and magnets 
systems. Upon moving past each other, the magnetic flux field 
disturbs electrons which yield electricity, which is collected by the 
coils system. This is accomplished electronically with the new 
technology, with out moving parts and the energy is multiplied 
such that the Device becomes self sustaining once started. 
This Technology as previously presented World Wide will be 
shown at the the Conference. 

Dr. Smith 

Putting a slake Ihrou through Heart thus removing the mental block pUl 
thereby antique physics is required. Conditions where in this becomes 
necessary are none linearity , resonance and explosions of any sort. 
Combustibles of any sort such gasoline and atomic explosions are good 
examples where in more energy out than in, is obvious. You can add to 
that nonlinarty found in pulleys, hydraulics steam power and such. 
Magnetic resonance is highly obvious source for multiplying energy out. The 
sound system present in the piano demonstrates this very clearly. Energy 
amplification clearly present in the above demonstrates the silliness attested to 
by many Physicist . 

Ohmic resistance does not apply to magnetic resonance which travels 
unrestricted for great distances, therefor multitudes of electrons are disturbed, 
who's back spin translates from magnetic to usable electric energy. These 
same electrons have been around from the beginnings, undiminished and 
remain so until the end of lime. 


Useful Electrical Energy is obtained directly from electron spin induced by 
incoming, magnetic waves or indirectly through mechanical exchange as in 
dynamo \\pc devices. Simply prj J electron spin converts from magnetic to 
electrical energy and vice versa. Nature for free provides grand scale 
magnetic wave induction through out the universe. In Electrical Systems 
movement is at right angle to the direction of current movement. This 
explains the rotary movement of the Earth and other related Systems. 
The rate of Spin for the Earth is known as well as the mass (5,98 X 
10 to the 24 In. kg}* therefore the amount of Electrical Energy incoming 
which produces this action can be calculated- It can be easily be seen 
Inat the incoming magnetic wave energy is Vast and Continuous. As an 
accretion mass, the Earth is an Energy Sink, getting it's energy from 
elsewhere, being Cosmic, Galactic and Solar. 

Conversion of incoming magnetic waves into electrical energy provides an 
unending, inexpensive and environmentally friendly source available to all. 
Cosmic and Galactic Energy is available twenty four hours per day. Large 
amounts of this Energy accumulates in the Earth's radiation belts. This Giant 
Energy Storage, when properly understood provides a major source of free 
unending electrical energy. One of My Inventions plugs into this vast 
energy source. 

A perverse Intentional Ignorance on the part of the Establishment prevents 
recognition of the importance of the Energy Systems herein. Any new system 
favorable towards the masses is considered as disruptive and therefore not 
allowed. Those who have the ( Gold ) Energy Rule ( Golden rule ) Mandated 
Destruction of all Humanity is not a consideration,. 

This Presenter will remove some of the Fog placed with intent of 
preventing the recognition of this unending, environmentally clean electrical 
energy Source, present throughout the Universe. The Cost of Harvesting and 
Using this Free Energy is a function of Human Stupidity. 

* "Physics for Scientist and Engineers 1 ', Raymond A. Serway, Saunders 
College Publishing T Second Edition, page 288, Table 14.2 


Used to demonstrate electromagnetic radiation 
oetween two UC circuits - one a transmitter and 
the other a receiver. When the 1.5 volt power 
transmitter is pulsed, the radiated signal is 
prcked up by the remote receiver circuit which 
[hen lights up a 70 voJt neon lamp 

With this apparatus, the student quickly 
understands some basic principles governing 
wireless communication, broadcasting etc 




(207) 832-6344 

P.O. BOX 727 


Transm i tter 

Rece i ver 

Figure 1 

Diagram of transmitter and receiver 
coi Is. 


A human is a .speck of dust on Earth, the Solar System is a speck of dust in the Galaxy and in 
turn it's a speck of dust in ihc Universe (Cosmos). All of these respectively represent vast 
ambient energy reservoirs. Awareness of' trie Sun opens doors into other energy sources. 
Electromagnetic Energy present everywhere throughout the Universe is accessed by- 
catalytic activity, directly as in Solar Cells or indirectly as by mechanical means. When 
Resonate, Magnetic Waves (Faraday's Action at a Distance) allows Energy Activation 
Transfer to remote points of usage. Capture and use of this Energy is optional as to Method 
and therefore it's cost (Free Knergy) is a function of Human Stupidity. 

Direct access is more desirable and technology transfer from Solar Cell type Devices 
provides the Catalyst. Enormously high Ambient Energy Levels are not detected by 
instruments that use the Ambient Background as a Reference Plane. A spoon full of water 
lifted from the Ocean does not define the Ocean. Incoming magnetic waves are reflected, 
Deflected or absorbed. Deflected Magnetic Waves spin electrons sideways producing useful 
Electrical Energy. Absorbed Wave Energy produces heat, therefore a hot interior tor the 
Earth, in Electrical Systems physical movement is in the direction of current flow, frict tonal 
draaJJom inflow current dc lines gravity . Accretion masses resulting from Energy Sinks 
provides all solid entities with their respective gravitational effect. 

Increasing the tolerance level lor Intellectual Awakening opens Doors of Reality. These 
doors blink into and out of existence and upon recognition benefit Mankind. Opening some 
of these Doors, presently seen through a deep fog is our purpose. Exploring Unrecognized 
Energy Sources, being a Part of the Ambient Background is another goal. Available 
Instruments do not use reference planes which allow recognition as we shall see, vast 
Energy Sources that totally surround and are available through Technology Transfer. They 
are inexpensive (Free), fully self renewable and environmentally benign. 

Incoming Magnetic Wave Energy with Faraday's action at u distance will be looked at 
closely. Particle Physics will be left for the .Astrophysics. Excited Electrons at point 1 * A 1 * 
the Sun (includes the Galaxy and Cosmos) do not travel to point "B" the Earth, however a 
corresponding action occurs at point "B n . The Electrons being disturbed at the Central 
Power Plant in the same manner excite the Electrons at Your I louse, upon switching into an 
Earth grounding (known as Hipping the switch). Correspondingly there are Eour Major 
Power Sources providing enormous amounts of Ambient Background Magnetic Wave 
Energy. They are The Cosmic, Galactic, Solar and Earth's Ambient Electromagnetic 
Backgrounds. The Earth's Electromagnetic Field comes from reflection, deflection and 
absorption as a result of action at a distance from the above. 

Prescription Physics mandates lhaL the Earth 1 * background is of little interest. When we 
have Considered the evidence herein, it will become obvious that Special Interest's effort 

at keeping (he People ignorant has until now largely succeeded. 

Information for the entire World is available regarding the Magnetic Flux Background of 
the Earth's Surface (United State's Geological Survey, Colorado, USA, Office). When 
examined and properly understood, these Maps yield important information regarding 
reflection, deflection and absorption of incoming Magnetic Waves, plus action at a 
distance. When properly understood, these Maps yield a very large Ambient 
Electromagnetic Energy Source. This is the Part of the Earth's Energy System that 
relates to the Bird on the High Voltage Line, When deflected, magnetic flux from 
electrons changes to electrical flux, providing the Motor System that spins / rotates the 
Earth. Physical movement by electrical systems is from inflow current movement. What 
level of current movement is required to spin the Earth ? 'Hie Earth's Mass is 5,98 
X 10 to the 24 th. kg, Page 288, "Physics for Scientist & Engineers, 2 ed. Edited by 
Raymond A. Sens ay, Pub. Saunders, USA. From this Information the Watts of 
Electricity Required may be calculated I Absorbed microwave flux energy heats from 
the inside out, therefore a hot interior for the Earth. Water is strongly diamagnetic and 
ocean waves present on windless days provide visible Proof of the overhead incoming 
magnetic flux. From above the Earth's weight and rate of spin allows the calculation of 
the amount of incoming ambient background energy required. As You can see it is not 
inconsequential as Prescription Physics mandates. 

Astrophysicist are concerned with charged particles that whiz by once every one hundred 
years, rather than Wave Phenomenon associated with action at a distance. This highly 
Active Wave Energy translates into Electrical Energy at point "B". The Galaxy is alive 
With Energy, being billions of times greater than that of the Sun. Visible Light is a very 
tiny part of the Electromagnetic Energy Spectrum. Frequencies present in the Galaxy and 
Cosmos allows Radio Telescope photographs of their existence and magnitude. One 
such photograph at 408 MHz of the Electromagnetic Energy Spectrum is here 
presented. The Earth is a tiny speck of dust in this Enormous Ocean of Energy, near 
the left end of the Central High Energy Area. A second Radio Telescope photograph 
comparing the filtered images is presented. 

This Energy extends in all directions. Accretion and formation of Planets, Suns and 
Galaxies are results of energy sinks and variable sized black holes. Mass retains heat 
And is cooked from the inside out by the microwave back ground provided by the 
Universe. Flux movement into energy sinks provides the frictional force know as gravity. 
Spinning mass in the presence of incoming flux amplifies the gravitational effect. 

At present only Solar Energy is recognized. It is inconsistent, flaky and a very small 
Part of the Magnetic Wave Energy Present Technology Transfer from Solar Power 
provides uncomplicated and inexpensive, direct access to the Other Greater Energy 
Sources. All Electromagnetic Energy harvesting methods include a Catalyst, a 
Collector and a Pump. Catalyst include sensitization through doping with certain 

elements, air and earth groundings. Collectors include temporary storage as in 
Capacitors, Coils and Transformers. The Pump System Includes induced movement 
onward to point of use. Conventional rotating coils and magnet systems activate 
electrons present, such that action at a distance can occur, therefore it is an energy 
activation pump. In Direct Access Systems such as Solar Cells, the same occurs 
without mechanical action. Direct access occurs when Magnetic Waves impact a 
catalyst, spinning the local electrons sideways, producing useful electrical energy. 

Indirect acquisition of electrical energy by mechanical means is wasteful, troublesome, 
expensive and degrades the environment. The dynamo is a combination collector and pump 
of energy which is collected from the Earth's Ambient Energy Background. Generators do 
not make electricity, ihcy collect it from the Ambient Background and foreword it, as 
in Faraday's action at a distance, Energy Conservation Z^iws related to the systems herein 
relate to gray areas and when understood are excluded because of existence of External 
forces, open and nonlinear systems a la Einstein. The Knowledge Base just viewed 
provides a Direct Understanding of the Requirements for Harvesting of unending folly 
renewable, environmentally benign Sources of Electrical Energy. 

Magnetic Resonance Power System 
Suggestions for Construction 

This is the Basic Sonar Power System which permits submarines to see 
approximately 50 miles distance. What is not commonly known is that 
it works better at higher frequencies into the Gigahertz. Any Device that 
can radiate 50 miles plus is producing an enormous electromagnetic 
disturbance from a small input into a rod of magnetostrictive material. 
Disturbing the Earth's Ambient Background plus the strong dipole being 
produced turns the magnetostrictive rod into a combination receiving 
antenna and a vastly superior output transformer. 

The Drawing is only the Key Unit. A power input module and an 
output inverter circuit (diode bridge plus output transformer) is required. 
The metal core and wire size of the output transformer plus adjusting 
the Earth Grounding of the Load will determine the Amperage. 

The Ideal rod material is Terfenol-D ( check the internet ). However a 
1 V2" D and 10" L cost over $5,000. Each. Less expensive alternates 
are obvious. In construction use PVC tubing with removable caps. 
Wind the coils on it and insert the experimental rod. Use magneto- 
strictive material only. 

When You get it right You will have exactly what the Doctor ordered. 


Magnetic Resonance Power System for Water Systems 
output Donald l_ Smith 


O 1 i 



DC — 




[ 2 




UJ < 

NPN f\ 



n 2 





FLEcraotrric capacitor 

Magnetostriction oscillators work by magnetic resonance in a rod of 
magnetostriction material*. This rod serves two purposes, It vibrates at 
frequency of resonance oscillation, and becomes the feedback transformer 
Frequency is determined by items 4, 5, 6 and 8. The diameter .length and 
volume of the rod and output windings determines the output. Item # 2 
provides feed back into the system. Negative magnetic character of 
Hem #8 plus the windings #2 in reaction to the magnetic flux field 
provided by # 9, increases ( am plrfies- magnifies ) the output Magnetic 
permeabtfty n the counterpart of negative resistance Resonate wrth 
negative magnetic resistance it pumps energy from the Earth's ambient 
background Magnetic permeability is the ratio of flux density ( Earths B 
field } to the magnetizing force ( H ) in oersteds, 

* Magnetostnctive materials are piezoelectric in character, have very 
high resistivity to electrical current flow. Examples are: 

1 PermeaUoy Negative Magnetic Permeability > 80,000 

2. Sendust " - 30,000 - 120,000 

3Metgjas > 20O r 0O0 

4. Iron with ( 34% ) Cobalt " 13.000 

5, New Technology " > 1000,000 


1. DIRECT - Faraday's Action at a Distance from incoming magnetic wave 

conversion to useful electrical energy. Includes Cosmic, 
Galactic, Solar and Magnets. Technology Transfer from 
Solar Cell Technology. 

2. I IN D1RKCT- Electron Stimulation-Induced Electron Spin Systems 

Electron Avalanche Pumping Systems 
Primitive, Indirect Conversion from another form of energy. 

Coils and Magnet as in Dynamo Systems ( Closed Systems ). 

Chemical Systems, Atomic, Pons & Fleischman and etc. 
Advanced, Direct Conversion, Magnetic Wave ( Open Systems ), 

Ambient Sources 

Air Core Coil Systems 

Gaseous Tube Systems 

Solid State Marx Generator Avalanche Type Systems. 

Ley den Bottle Capacitor Types inserted in Lakes and other. 

Magnet Systems 

Electron Beam Antenna Systems 


Splids-as in metal conductors 

Gaseous as in radio wave transmission, a form of ionization, 
Sensitizing of Systems by use of Trace Doping with 
Radioactive elements, includes metal surfaces. 

Open Systems , none linear with external forces, Albert 

Einstein as a direct quote from his biography states that 

these are excluded from the eonservation of energy laws. 

Closed Systems Maxwellian Type Systems. Mathematics are 

predictable requiring deductive reasoning. Ohm's Law is King 

and Establishment Intellectuals being comfortable with this 

brand all else as a violation of the Laws of Nature by 

obtaining something for nothing. This is Dishonesty grand mat. 














Visible Light 

Earth's Electrical 


Reflection, Deflection and Absorption 
Faraday's action at a Distance from Magnetic Waves 

*** A Composite of from Ail the Above 

A deep fog pervades the entire Scientific Community with regards to the 
Significance of the Above Energy Sources. Magnetic Waves convert directly 
into Electrical Waves ( useful electricity ), Two sides of the electromagnetic 
system are always present and never separate. Local electron spin provide:; 
( action at a distance ) the flip side of the incoming magnetic wave energy. 

Enormous amounts of incoming magnetic wave energy becomes a part of 
the Ambient Background and as such can not be measured directly. 
Reconstruction from indirect information allows us to establish actual energy- 
levels present. Instruments provided by the Scientific Community measure 
only point "A" to "B", when both are ambient no potential energy is 
shown. This is the bird sitting on the million volt power line and' sensing 
nothing approach, The Earth's actual ambient background has as it's Energy 
level multi Billions of Volts, which are conveniently and obliviously ignored 
by the scientific community. When properly understood this enormous, never 
ending source of environmentally friendly energy becomes available. 






























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Electrical Energy System 
Don L. Smith, Energy Consultant 

At a meeting between J. P. Morgan, Edison and Tesla, Tesla proposed an 
Electrical Energy System which could be connected into directly, with out using 
a meter. Testa's Idea of " Free Energy " was not compatible with their thinking. 
Courtesy of Morgan and Edison, from thai day foreword, a complete and total 
bastardization of the Idea has been in progress. Agents for Morgan and Friend 
include the U S. Patent Office and Academia. Academia's bad habit of 
incestuous quoting of each other eliminates them as a possibility in cleaning up 
the mess, This selective ignorance permeates through out the study of electricity. 

Many persons, otherwise as intellectuals, have a total blackout and become 
jabbering idiots when " free energy" is mentioned. The term has been amended 
to say, "something which was never there is being harvested and that this 
violates the laws of physics". For the selectively ignorant this seems the way 
to run. Those who choose Morgan's drum beat, have severely limited the 
possibilities built into electricity. 

This paper will be an exercise in creative understanding, in placing updated 
knowledge at your disposal. Whether it becomes a useful tool or is selectively 
ignored is your choice. 

Electrons arc defined as the practical source of electrical and magnetic energy. 
The electron as a particle was postulated by professor J. Thompson in early 1900's. 
It is now universally accepted that, the electron exist and that it is the source of 
electricity. When the electron is agitated it produces magnetic and negative 
electrical energy. Physics as it exist, can not explain why the electron remains in 
tact and is not diminished by the energy it releases. This is a part of the built 
in ignorance provided by the Morgan and Edison Camp. 

A volts worth of electrons, when cycled yields a volts worth of electricity. 
This can be repeated continuously forever and never deplete or diminish the 
electrons in question They simply return to their air and, or earth source, 
waiting to do the whole thing, again and again. Therefore, electrical energy 
is available, any and every where humans go. Persons who intercede for profit, 
set the cost of electrical energy. Otherwise, all electrical energy is free, 
Morgan and Fdison be dammed 

Improving upon Professor Thompson's postulation, other obvious character further 
defines the electron. It has both magnetic and electrical emanation resulting from 
a right and left hand spin. Since magnetic and amperage are one package this 
suggest, that electrons in a natural none ionic state exist as doublets. 
When pushed apart by agitation one spins and supplies electricity and the other 

spins and provides magnetic (amperage) energy. When they reunite, we have 
Volts X Amperage -' Watts. This Idea, until now, has been totally absent from 
the knowledge base. 

The times an electron is cycled sets the collective energy potential present, 
The electrical equivalent of E = MC squared is E =■ ( Volts X Amperes ) X 
Cycles Per Second squared. Those who choose, are now free to head 
for the bushes and make their usual contribution to humaniry, 

Prior to Tesla, there was a large group of persons in Europe, who were building 
resonate coil systems related to medical usage. Amperage was dangerous in their coil 
systems. The Tesla Coil is only the Voltage half of their coil system, as will be 
demonstrated herein, 

A short list of those active ( 1860-1880 onward ) in resonalc high frequency coil systems 
include the Curies,. Roentgen, Ruhmkoff, Oudin, Hertz, Levassor, Dumont : D'Arsonval 
and many others. 

Peugeot, Panhard-Levassor, Bollee, Renault and others had successful electric 
automobiles in production using A.C. motors. Various electrically powered airships 

including [he DmLubje France were in service. 

D'Arsonval , Professor of Experimental Medicine at the College of France, 
invented the electrocardiograph, oscilloscope, amp and volt meters, thermography 
and numerous other medical applications of high frequency electricity. As early as 
1860, he was building high frequency coil systems, used in his experimental work. 

There is a strong connection between the work of Tesla and the above mentioned. 

Electric vehicles of all sorts, dominated until the 1920's, when the electric starter 
motor made the internal combustion engine practical. Prior to that, upon cranking, 
it frequently would break the owner's arm. At that point the use of batteries as a 

source: of power was replaced by oil.. 

The establishment's carpet has some rather large lumps under it. Coulomb's and Newton's 
inverse square law is politely ignored and it's opposite is allowed only the most abstract 
status. Without opposite*, we have no definition. 

The source value of a remote flux reading, requires the squaring of the distance, limes 
the remote reading, to obtain the original value. The Opposite of this, being the derivations 
relate to Energy equals Mass times the Velocity constant squared. The electrical 
equivalent, being Energy equal capacitance times voltage squared and Energy equals 
induction times amperes squared. Flux lines increase as the law of squares and then 
activate electrons (energy) not previously a par) of the sum, The cumulative capacitance 
and inductance as the distal ends of a Tesla coil are approached, results in energy greater 
than the input being present This Energy is real when prnperly understood. It can be 
safely measured by magnetic flux methods and electrostatic voltmeters, based on the 
inverse square law 

As seen above flux lines result both from Induction-henrys-amperage and 
capacitance-coulombs- volts and define electrical energy. The non-linearity of this system 
does not obey ohm's law, which is replaced with impedance and reactance for alternating 
current systems. Impedance is the sum of the system resistance, which becomes zero 

at resonance. In a resonate induction systems, cycles pur seconds increases, invoke:* a 
second round for the law of squares. 

The degree to which flux lines are present, disturbs an equal amount of electrons, 
upsetting ambient, resulting in useful electrical energy. The frequency at which the 
disturbance occurs, obeying the law of squares further accelerates away from ambient, 
increasing the useful energy available. Two square law endties, flux density and frequency 
the envoked. Enter resonance which cancels the resistive effect, 

Only that electrical energy above or below ambient is useful. For the Central U.S. going 
east to west, ambient as approximated by electro-static voltmeters and flux methods is 
on a solar quite day 200,000 voJti 

At night time ambient drops to about one half the daytime value, On a solar active days 
it may reach more than five times that of a quite day. Ambient background energy at the 
polar regions is approximately 500,000 volts on a solar quite day. The background varies 
as relates to the north-south component and the cast-west continuum. 

This leaves us with an interesting problem. Electrons, when disturbed, first produce 
magnetic flux and then electrical flux when they spin back to their normal position. 
Therefore any electron movement produces above ambient energy, being over unity. 


1 . Current-amperes results from the unequal distribution 
of negativity (electrons), 

2. Electron spin causes electrical current and magnetic 

lines of force. 

3. Magnetic imbalance causes the gravitational effect. 
This is evidenced in electric motors by magneto- 
gravitational displacement of mass, which causes 
the motor to rotate. 





Electrical Flux 

1 I 

11 1 


- — 




Magnetic Flux 



Below 20.000 Hertz Per Second = Fields 

Greater than 20,000 Hertz Per Second = WavesC Radio Freq ) 

Derivation of Magnetic and Electrical Power 

Analogous Relationships : 

1. Potential Power is present in a bar magnet as shown. 

( Area of Electron Spin Seperafcn > 

More Negative 


Domain has: 
Left hand spin 
( = Source of Votts > 

Less Negative 

Domain has: 
Right hand spin 
C = Souice of Amperes ) 

2. The Source of these Electrons being from the Solar Plasma, 
are none ionic and occupy all Free Space, They are 
commonly obtained from Earth and Air Groundings. They 
exist in Doublet Pairs, one being more negative than the other. 
The more negative one has a Left Hand Spin. The less 
negative one has a Right Hand Spin. 

3. Resonate Dectrical Coil Systems C Tesla ) are Analogous to 
the System observed in the Bar Magnet (above). The Bloch 
Wall Area is Located at the base of the L - 2 Coil The Left 
Spin portion ( Voltage Only ) part of the Coil predominates. 
The right hand spin portion C Magnetic-Amperage ) portion 
is mostly absent. 


o 2. 




























5 1 

^ $ 

— o 



"o a 


|£ Q £ < 


aj p 

1= 4> 



•i £ 


°- « 


□_ -n 


■a S 

«i g 

ra it: 


1 g 

1 o 

— trt 



Q- o 

«> S -s 


J nd uced Electrical E rwg y gystem 

Collection and transfer of energy requires temporary storage, 
which occurs as capacitors and coils of a resonate circuit are 
cycled, off and on. The frequency ot which the capacitors and 

coils are pumped determines the amount of electrical energy 

that moves onward. 

The amount of Energy transferred relates directly to the density of 
lines of flux present. The Kinetic Energy Formula is helpful in 
establishing the amount of energy present. This formula squares the 
velocity times mass. In the case of electrical energy, intensity of 
voltage and amperes times cycles per second replace velocity. 


Note the 'acceleration' of the Voltage "E" and Amperage 
which increase as none linear, then obeys the Law of Squares. 

Each unit of increase causes a squaring of the flux lines present 
The amount of energy transfer caused by this increase in flux lines 
is demonstrated below. 

Increase in Flux Lines Present Symbolized 


One Volt 

Two Volts = Four 


Dur Volts - Sixteen 

In resonate air core coil energy transfer, the increase in flux lines 
present disturbes more electrons than previous, resulting in over 
unity energy being present and available. 

Energy stored, times the cycles per second, represents that being 
pumped by the system. Capacitors and inductors temporary 
store electrons. 

Capacitor formula: W= .5 X CE X C.P.S. 

W = energy in Joules ( Watt Seconds ) 

C = capacitance in farads 

E = applied potential in volts squared 

Inductor ( Coil ) formula W = .5 X L I X CP.S. 

W = energy in Joules ( Watt Seconds ) 
L = inductance in henrys 
] - current in amperes squared 

Both one henry and one fa Tad equal one volt. The higher the 
cycles per second, including the squaring of the flux lines cause 
a targe increase in the amount of energy being produced. 

The above combined with a resonate energy induction system 
( all electrons moving at the same time in the same direction X 
make the next move into overunity practical 

The dampning process of conventional electrical power 
generation has all the available electrons randomly bouncing, 
mostly canceling out each other. In this System, useful energy 
available is a very small percent of that present. 

In the resonate induction system a very high percent of the 
energy present is useful. When resonate. (ohms-lmpedence-Z ) 
' becomes zero and all energy present is available, undegraded. 
Ohms is load or wasted energy and amperes is the rate of wasting 

Using the previous information, now apply it to an air core coil, 
resonate transformer energy system. L-one and L-two coils 
are now present. L-one has a smaller number of turns and is 
several times the diameter of L-two, Input from a 1 2 volt gelcel* 
source produces 8,000 volts with low C wasted energy ) 
amperage into 4 turns of coil L-one. Each turn of L-one then 
acquires 2,000 volts of resonate potential Each turn of L-two 
is then exposed to the electric flux of 2,000 volts. Each turn at 
the bottom end of L-two acquires 2,000 volts. The flux lines are 
squared and are additive as the voltage and amperage 
progresses towards the top end of L-two's many turns. 

A huge amount of flux lines not previously present occur at the 
top end of L-two. These flux lines excite the electrons nearby 
in if s earth and air and groundings. This high level of excitement 
above the ambient causes a large amount of electrons not 
previously a part of the energy present to become available. 
At this point overunity is present in large amounts. 

The bubble gum between the ears response to this is, lots of volts 
but no amperes. Please recall that amperage is wasted energy, 
and that until wasting occurs there are no amperes, 
A good way to demonstrate this is let the bubble gum crowd, 
put their hand on the high voltage end of the device while 
standing on wet ground ( a people zapper ). 

This overunity device produces energy at radio frequency, 
ranging into the megahertz range. This allows the device to be 
small in size, and produces large amounts of energy. 
A megawatt sized unit will sit comfortably on a breakfast table. 
This energy is changed to direct current and then to the 
desired working frequency. 

* A high voltage laser module. 

Power Triangle 

L -1 Po w er S ystsm 

I-? Pnwpr System 

A: Volts x Amperes C Available Power). 

B: Volts x Amperes x Time C Used Power). 

C: Volts x Amperes x Reactive ( Resonate Power ). 

1 . Random movement ot electrons in "A* and "B\ mostly cancel 
out each other. This dampening, or wasteful concept of energy, 
is a source of much pleasure for the establishment. 

2. 'C ( Volt Amperes Reactive V.A.R. X ail electrons move in the same 
direction at the some time. Therefore near unity energy output by 
resonate induction transfer. 

3. Resonate induction transfer from one isolation power system allows, 
other resonate induction systems to duplicate the original source, 
which in no way diminishes the original source. Air core coils 

( isolation-transformers) when a part of a functioning system 
confirm this, A less perfect illustration would be, the number of 
radio devices running in no way diminishes the output source. 

4. Resonate induction transfer disturbs a large number of adjacent 
electrons, which were not a part of the original source, 

the pulsating-pumping effect then incorporates the newly available 
extra electrons into the ongoing energy generation source- system. 
A near unity energy system of resonate air core coils and the extra 
acquired electron-energy source constitute an over unity system. 

Electrical Power Generation / Points of Reference 

Useful Electrical Power is Generated when Electrons from Earth and Air 
Groundings are disturbed by the movement of coils and magnets with 
reference to each other. The resulting electrical and magnetic energy 
is then changed to joules [ watt seconds, Volts x Amps x Seconds ] . 
Each forward electron movement results in a magnetic impulse 
and each return movement causes an electrical impulse. 
The composite ot the electrical energy impulses from these electrons 
yields useful energy [ Power ] . 

Let the above electron movement be represented by a room full of 
ping pong bails randomly bouncing, Most of the energy present cancels 
out by random impacting. This is the Classic Under Unity approach to 
Electrical Power Generation, sanctioned by the Establishment. 

In the Electrical Energy Generation System here presented, the resonate 

Electrons are all moving in the same direction at the same time. 

This allows Near Unity Electrical Power to Develop. This is the room temperature 

equivalent of super conductivity. 

The Energy System here presented consists of a properly adjusted and 
functional resonate air core coil tank . The Electrical Energy is stored 
in capacitors and magnetic energy in the coil system. 
From Maxwell and others, we know that electrical related energy has 
an equal amount of magnetic energy associated with it.. 

" The formula which establishes the Useful Energy of the System :' 

Joules = t 0.5 C x V's squared 3 xC.P.S. squared 

Joules { Volts x Amperes x Seconds ] Watt Seconds 

C = Capacitance in microfarades 

V = Potential in Volts 

C.P.S. s Cycles per second 

transfer of Electrical Powef by Resonate induction is a direct function 
of the squaring of the cycles per second. For example square 60 C.P.S. 
and then square the radio frequency C.P.S.'s of the System here presented. 
Obviously One Million Cycles per Second transfers more energy than 
Sixty Cycles per second. The Sanctioned Method of Electrical Power 
Generation uses the 60 C.P.S. Method. Usage of the 60 C.P.S.. and 
the random scattering of the Electrons System assures the Establishment 
of rf s desired Under Unity Goal. 

This random bouncing of the Electrons is the Ohms of Ohm's Law 
and is used to establish the rate of dissipation and or Load [ Work ] , 

In the_Re_san.gte Tank Induction Energy Transfer System here presented 
Impedance [ system resistance 1 replaces the conventional ohm's usage, 
At Resonance impedance becomes Zero and the full force and effect 
of the Energy Transfer occurs. This is superconductor conditions at 
room temperature. At radio frequency the Electrons do not pass through 
the conductor as at lower frequencies. These Electrons encircle the 
conductor and are free of the conductor's resistance. 

Let the Establishments Power Generation Sy stem, be "A" and the 
System here presented be "B\ 

"A". Given 60 C.P.S. at 120 Volts using 10 microfarad Capacitor 

Joules = [ 0.5 x .000,010 x 120 squared] x C.P.S.'s squared 

{ 120 x's 120 = 14,400 J 
1.000,010 x 14,400. =.1441 
[ .144 x 0.5 = .072] 
I .072 x 3, 600 = 259.2 ] 

If using the Inventor's Resonate induction System the Electrical Power 
available would then be 259.2 Joules [ Watt Seconds ] . Using the 
Establishmenf s method only permits less than 1 Watt Seconds of 
Useful Electrical Energy. 

'B'. Given One Million Cycles per second at 100,000. Volts, using 
a 10 microfarad Capacitor. 

Joules = [ 0.5 x .000,010 x 100,000. squared ] x CP.S.'s squared 

[ 100,000 x 100,000. ■ 10,000.000,000.] 

I .000,010 x 10,000,000.000. = 100,000] 

[ 100,000 x 0.5 - 50,000] 
I 50,000 x One Million squared = ] 

The useful Electrical Energy available is greater than 50 Mega K- Joules 
I Watts ] plus., Since the Resonate Electrons are nonimpacting, all the 
Energy is available for direct usage. 

Benefits of the Inventor's System are summarized: 

1 . Induction Energy transfer is enhanced by squaring 
of the cycles persecond by the System. 

2. Induction Energy transfer is enhanced by squaring 
the input voltage and amperage. 

3. The increase of the flux lines occurring from the above, disturbing 
more electrons, causes more electrical energy to become 

4. Resonate Induction has all the Electrons moving, 
unimpeded, resulting in superconductor conditions 
at room temperature. 

5, A smaller amount of energy is used to disturb a larger 

number of Electrons. Electrons not originally a part of 
the System then contribute their energy, resulting in 
a net gain in available usable power. 

6. The physical size of the System L Device ] is small. 
The Device describe in "B" sits comfortable on a 
breakfast table. 

7. A small energy source is used to start the device and 
remains fully charged at all times from the System . 

The Evidence Against Under Unity 

1. Use of Logarithmic Scales on electrical measurement 
instruments. Linear measurement works fine where Ohm's 
Law applies C direct current ). In alternating current ohms 
are replaced by impedence and the measure men Is 
become non linear, 

2. Infinite "Q" at resonance confirms that voltage and amperage 
is squared, as in the kinetic energy formula. See the formulas 
of this report. 

3. Square waves are clipped infinite 'Q*s. 

4. Maxwell and others show that magnetic-inductance- 
amperage and electricat-ca pa citance- voltage are two sides 
of the same coin, Magnetic-inductance is directly 

equal to amperage. Both obey the Law of Squares, 
which has over unity built in. 

5. Magnetic and electrical flux are present in enormous amounts 
at the distal ends of an operating Tesla CoiL 

6. Ignorance in how to measure and relate magnetic and 
electrical flux, is the chief weapon of the under unity gaggle. 

7. The Cumulative inductance and capacitance of the 
Tesla Coil grounds it's self out if not properly utilized. 

See this report for the temporary energy storage accessible, 
if properly managed. 

8. The Patent Office refers devices related to over unity to their 
metering group, which is a sure indication that they are 
aware and accept the logarithmic measuring devices. 

This is direct and absolute evidence that they accept the 
square law as relates to kinetic energy. This also indicates 
they are aware that over unity exist. Since their bureaucratic 
brain is improperly motivated they continue to badger 
inventors who are working in the over unity arena. Their level 
of intellectual dishonesty is sanctioned by, and is a real part 
of doing business with a government which prides it's self 
in being a hooliganistic bureaucracy. List 

1. Alston, L.L. { Ed.), 196S, High-Voltage Technology, Oxford Univ. Press, London. 

2. Beck, E. 1954, Lightning Protection for Electric Systems, McGraw-Hill, N Y. 

3. Bawdier, GAV. 1973, Measurements in High-voltage Test Circuits 
Pergamom, Oxford. L.C 72-86488 

4. Brcwley, L.V., 1951, Traveling Waves in Transmission Lines Pub: John Wiley, 

5. Chapman, S. and Bands, J, 1940, Geomagnetism, two volumes, 1,000 plus pages, 
Oxford at the Clarendon press, England 

6. Craggs,J.D. and Meek, J.M, 1954, High- Voltage Laboratory Technique., 
Buttcrworth, London 

7. EHV Transmission Line Reference Book, 1968 Edison Electric Institute, N.Y. 

8. Famo, R.M., Chu, L.j, and Adler, R.B., 1968, Electromagnetic Fields, Energy and 

Forces, Puh: M. IT Press, Cambridge, Mass. 

9. Feinberg, R. ( Ed. ) 1979, Modern Power Transformer Practice, McMillan, London 

10. Fninge!, F., High Speed Pulse Technology, Vols, land 2, Pub: Academic Press, 
1965, N.Y., and London. 

11. Gallagher, T.J. and Pearmain, AJ. 1983, ISBN 0-47 1-90096-6 High Voltage 
Measurement and Design, John Wiley, N.Y. 

12. Hague, B., Alternating-Current Bridge Methods, 5 th. ed. Pub: Sir lasaac Pitman 
and Sons, 1959, London. 

13.Hawley, W,G. 1959, Impulse-voltage Testing, Chapman and Hill, London, 

14. Hayashi, Ch., Noneltnear Oscillations in Physical Systems, Pub: McGraw-Hill, 
1964. N.Y. 

15. Henny, K. 1933-1959, Editor-in-Chief, Radio Engineering Handbook, five different 
copyrights, L.C, 58-11174, McGrawHill. N.Y. 

16. Hudlestone, R.H. and Leonard, S.L., Plasma Diagnostics Techniques, 
Pub: Academic Press, N.Y. 

17. Jacobs, J A., Editor, Geomagnetism, { a massive work ) 3 large volumes. 
Pub: Academic Press, London. 

18. Jeans, J. H. 1925, The Mathmatics of Electricity and Magnetism, 5 th. Ed., 
Chambridge University Press, 

19. Jones, B. 1972, New Approaches to the Design and Economics of EHV 
Transmission Plant, P^gamom, London. 

20. Kind, D. 1 978, An Introduction to High-voltage Experimental Technique, 
Viewieg, Braunschweig ISBN 3-528-08383-2 

2t.Knoepfel, H. 1970, Pulsed High Magnetic Fields, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 

22. Kreuger, F.H. 1964, Discharge Detection in High- Voltage Equipment, 
Temple Press, Heywood, London, 

23. Kuffel, E. andZacngl, W.S, 1984, High-Voltage Engineering, Pergamom, ;London. 
ISBN 0-08-024213-8 

24. Kupfinuller, K. 1 957, Introduction to the Scientific Basis of Electrical Engineering, 
Pub". Spinger, Berlin. 

25. Lemon, H.B. and Ference, M. Jr., Analytical Experimental Physics " a major work " 
from The Ryerson Physical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, numerous 
copyrights 1933-1 944. Printed as a text book by the University of Chicago Press 

26. Lewis, IAD., and Well. F.H., Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques Pub: Pergamom 
Press, N.Y. and London. 

27. Mafan, D.J. 1963, Physics of Lightning, English University Press, London. 
2S, Martin, T.L Jr., Physical Basis for Electrical Engineering, Prentice-Hall, N.J. 

29. Matsusta, S, and Campbell, W.H.. 1967 Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, 
Massive work in two volumes of 700 pages each, Academic Press, London. 

30. National Physical Laboratory, 1956, Notes on Applied Science #17, High Voltage 
Impulse Testing, HMSO. 

31. Rather, H., 1961, The Electron Avalanche and it's Generation, Pub: Vo. 33, Springer, 


32. Rokityansky, I.I., 1982, Geoelectromagnetic Investigation of the Earth's Crust and 
Mantle, Pub: Springer- Verlag, Berlin. 

33. Salge, J., Pcicr, D., Brilka, R, Schneider, D., 1970, Applications of inductive Energy 
Storage for the Production of Intense Magnetic Fields, Pub: Prc-ceedure of 6 th. Symp. 
on Fusion Teclinology, Aachen, 

34. Schulz,E.HL, Anderson, L.T., and Leger, R.M., Experiments in Electronics and 
Communication Engineering, Copyrights, various, from 1943 thru 1954 LC 55-5033 
Harper and Brothers, N.Y. 

35. Schwab, A. J 1972, High- Voltage Measurement Techniques, The M.I.T, Press, 
Cambridge, Mass., ISBN 0262- 19096-6 

36. Sevtn,L. r 1965, Field Effect Transistors, McGraw-Hill London. 

37. Silsbee, F.B., 1942, Static Electricity, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, 
D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, (N.B.S. Circular C 438 ) 

35. Smith, A. A., 1977, Coupling of External Electromagnetic Fields to Transmission Lines, 

ISBN 0-47 1-01 995 -X 
39. Terman, F.E., Electronics and Radio Engineering, 4 th. ed., Copyrights 1932, 1937, 

1947 and 1955 LC 55-6174 McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y, 
40 Thomas, R.T., 1970, High-Impulse Current and Voltage Measurement, Trans. 

I.E.E.E. TM-I9, pages 102-107 

41. Thompson, Professor W., (titled Lord Kelvin ) Reprint of Papers on 
Electrostatics and Magnetism ( original 1872 ) London. 

42. Traister, R, 1983, The Experimenter's Guide to Solid State Diodes, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 
ISBN 0- 13-295444 

43. Valley, G.E., and Wallman. H, 1948, Vacuum Tube .Amplifiers, McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 

44. Weedy, B.M. 1980, Underground Transmission of Etectrical Power, Wiley, London. 

45. Weeks, W.L. 1981, Transmission and Distrubution of Electrical Energy, Harper and 
Row, N.Y, 

46. Winch, R.P. Electricity and Magneusm ( several printings ) Composed in Copenhagen, 
Denmark, PTenticc-Hall Physics Series 

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Publishing Co., Amsterdam. 

An Answer to America's Energy Deficit 
Donald L Smith 

Energy Consultant 

Energy, energy everywhere and not a Joule to Jounce. Conventional 
wisdom, when properly tuned will appreciate the nature of energy, as here 
presented. The basic unit of electricity (the electron) upon encountering a 
moving magnetic field {or wave) spins, giving off an electric impulse. When 
this impulse collapses, it spins back to it's natural position, giving off a 
magnetic impulse Therefore, magnetic and electric ere two sine-, of the 
same coin. When the magnetic side is pulsed, it yields electricity and 
conversely, pulsing of the electrical side yields a magnetic field. Moving one 
in relation to the other produces useful energy, When done consecutively, 
each cycle pushes (current) forward, while pulling electrons into the 
system... in much the same way as a water pump moves water. These 
electrons are obtained from Earth and air grounding. 

The word "electric" comes from the Latin word electron "amber". When 
rubbed, amber deveSops an electrical charge, which can be transferred to a 
dissimilar substance. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a 
great deal of attention was centered on this attribute of amber. Amber was 
used to differentiate the non-metals. Carbon -related substances and other 
non-metals, when subjected to friction, give up negative electrical charges. 
On the other hand, metals when subjected to friction, simply conduct the 
charge. It is important to note approximately 70% of the Earth's exposed 
crustal portions (surface) consist of silicone related non-metals (electron 
donors) and become a direct source of electrical energy when properly 

Useful electrical energy can be obtained by grounding into the Earth's 
non-metal crust and into it's atmosphere as a natural source of electrons. 
These electrons have accumulated from the solar plasma during the aging 
of the Earth for more than 4.5 billion years, at a rate exceeding 3.9 exajoules 
per year. This indicates that the Earth's electrical field contains in excess of 
17.6 X 10 to the 1 8th pow f er of cumulative exajoules of energy. One 
Exajoule is the approximate energy equivalent of 125 million barrels of oil. 
The electrical energy in one display of lightning is approximately ten trillion 
joules. Each 24 hours, the land portions of Earth's surface yields in excess 
cf 200.000 emissions, which involves more than 2,000 quadrillion watt 

C,F. Gauss (1777-1855) and H.C. Oersted (1777-1851) both were 
separately trying to define the Earth's electrical field with external influences 
removed. These external influences being solar quiet periods and being 
remote from the land's surface. The air electricity background which they 
measured varies with latitude, Their European measurements correspond 
to approximately the latitude of Washington. D.C. They were measuring 
magnetic field fiux as an indicator of negative electron energy active and 
present. A related family of measurement are now presented. Units of 
measure used to define flux fields include Gauss (one unit = 100,000 volts). 
Oersted (one unit = 50,000 volts), Tesla (one unit = 10,000 Gauss) and 
Gamma (one unit = 1/10,000 of a Gauss). Much confusion exists in 
electrical related publications about these units, As presented here they are 
correct with values taken from their original definitions. 

The entire surface of the Earth has been surveyed by aerial magneto- 
meter, in most cases using gamma or nano teslas. One gamma is the 
magnetic flux equivalent of 10 active volts of electricity. When the data is 
corrected for flight height it becomes obvious that there are numerous areas 
where the gamma readings exceed one trillion gammas. Lightning strikes 
from the ground up are in that energy range. With knowledge of these 
electron enriched areas, the quality of Earth grounding, becomes enhanced. 
The correction necessary for land surface data when acquired from aerial 
magnetometer maps (using Coulomb's law) requires that the remote 
distance be squared and then multiplied times the remote reading. As an 
example, the remote reading is 1 ,600 gammas and the night height being 
1 ,000 feet. Take 1 ,000 X 1 ,000 = 1 ,000,000 X 1 ,600 gammas = 1 .6 trillion 
gammas X 10 volts = 16 trillion vol's equivalent for land surface data, 
Present day methodology requires mechanical energy in exchange for 
electrica! energy. Once obtained, this energy is subject to Ohm's Law, 
Present Methodology obtains it's electrical energy from it's non-metal and air 

This same energy can be obtained without the wasteful mechanical 
approach and at a much, much lower cost. Any required amount of 
electricity is available by resonate induction transfer from the Earth's 
magnetic and electrical fields. The major difference is in the functioning of 
Ohm's Law in relation to resonate circuits. In the resonate induction system 
here suggested, system resistance (Z) becomes zero at resonance. 

Therefore, volts and Amperes are equal (V.A.R.) until work (load) is 


Each cycling of this resonate induction system pulls in additional 
electrons from the Earth's electrical field, generating electrical energy in any 
required amount. In this system, a small amount of electrical energy is 
used to activate and pull into the system a much larger amount of energy, 

This electrical advantage corresponds to the pulley and lever of the 
mechanical world. The electrical system here presented is extremely 
efficient. Using present methodology as a basis for comparison, with it's 60 
Hz, per second system. The resonate induction system, cycling at 60 million 
times per second produces one million times the energy produced by the 
present energy systems. A single small size unit of the resonate induction 
system has more usable electrical output than a major conventional unit. 
The radio frequency energy here produced is easily changed to direct 
current, then to the present 60 Hz. per second system in preparation for 
commercial usage. 

*Patent Pending #08/100,074, Electrical Energy Generating System, 

4 February, 1992, 

Definitions: Joule is one watt for one second 
One watt is one volt ampere 
V.A.R. is Volt Amperes Reactive 


Reading: Electricity and Magnetism 

By B.I. Bleanyand B. Bleany 
Oxford University Press 1991 
I. S.B.N. 0-19-851172-8 

Engineering Electromagnetics 
By W, H, Hayt, Jr. 
McGraw-Hill 1989 
I.S.B.N. 0-07-027406-1 


Energy Methods in Electro magnetism 

By P. Hammond 

Oxford University Press 1 986 

I. S.B.N. 0-19-859368-6 

Energy in Electro magnetism 
By H. G. Booker 
Institution of Electrical Engineers 
by Peter Peregrinus Ltd. 1982 
I. S.B.N. 0-906048-59-1 

The American Radio Relay League Handbook for 1 992 and 

1993. 69th and 70th editions. 

Published by The American Radio Relay League. (For V.A.R. 


I.S.B.N. 0-87259-169-7 

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Techniques & Applications 
By R. S. Alger, U. S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, 

San Francisco, California. 

Pub. Interscience Lib. Congress #67-20255 

Geomagnetic Diagnosis of the Magnetosphere 
By A. Nishida, University of Tokyo 1978 
Pub; S p ringer- Verlag 
I.S.B.N. 0-387-08297-2 

Energy and The Missing Resource 
By I. Dostrovsky 

Pub: Cambridge University Press 1988 
I.S.B.N. 0-521-26592-4 

High Voltage Measurement Techniques 
By A. Schwab, M.I.T., 1971 
I.S.B.N. 0-262-19096 

Continued 1 . 

Environmental Magnetism 
By R, Thompson & F. Gidfield 
Pub: Allen & Unwin, London 1 986 
[.S.B.N. 0-04-538003-1 

Geoelectromagnetic Investigation of the Earth's Crust and 


Translated from Russian, By I. I. Rokityansky, 

I nstitu te of G eophy sics , Ki ev , U . S . S , R . 

Pub: Springer-Verlag 1982. 

I. S.B.N. 3-540-10530-8 

Electron Paramagnetic Resonace of Transition Ions 

By A. Abragam and B. Bleaney 

Dover Publications, New York, IM.Y. 1986 

The Electromagnetic Field 

By A. Shadowitz 

f )o v n r Publi c a ti on s , N ev; Yo rk , N Y Date"' 

Geomagnetism, Several Volumes, Pub. Periodically 
By J. A. Jacobs, Institute of Earth Studies, Dyfed, U.K, 
Pub: Academic Press 1 989-1 990's, 


By S. Chapman and J. Bartels, 3 Volumes 

Oxford University Press, 1940 

Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena, Several Volumes 

By S, Matsushita and W. H. Campbell 

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 

Library of Congress #67-23168 

Pub: Academic Press, 1967 


Physics Problems and How to Solve Them 

By C. E, Bennett, Professor Emneritus of Physics, 

University of Main (Particularly the sections on Electricity and 

Magnetism, and Units of Measure). 

Pub: Harper & Row Date? 

l.S.B.N. 0-06-460203-6 

Units and Standards for Electromagnetics 
By P. Vigoureux, National Physical Laboratory 
Pub: Springer- Verlag 1971 
l.S.B.N. 0-387-91077-8 

Surveyor's Guide to Electro magnetic Distance 
Measurement, Edited by J. J. Saastamoincn, Canada 
Pub: U n i ve rs ity of To ronto P ress Date ? 

Electromagnetic Distance Measurement 
By C. D. Burnside 
Pub: Granada, London 1971 
l.S.B.N. 0-258-96793-5 

Der Magnetische Kreis "The Magnetic Circuit" 
By Von Heinz Rieger of Siemens AG. 1 970 
Berlin and Munchen, Germany 
l.S.B.N, 3-8009-4719-6 

Electronic Modeling of Power Electronic Converters 

By J. A. Ferreira 

Pub: Kluwer Academic 1989 

33 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands 

l.S.B.N. 0-7923-9034-2 











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With alternating electrical current, electrons do not move from point "A" lo point 
"B" as commonly envisioned! Electrical potential {oscillating electrons) at point "A" 
results in harmonic electron activity at point "B", when the grounding switch 
(circuit) is closed. That is to say, point M B" supplies it's own electrons and mirrors 
the activity of point "A". Impulsing (turbulence) by magnetic induction causes 
electrons to be pulled into the system. Which then oscillates, When the magnetic 
field collapses (becomes absent) the electrical potential returns to it's natural 

Several major flaws are present in the conventional 60 Hertz's per second method 
of electrical power generation and it's iron core transformer system. This system 
is handcuffed by the inverse relationship of volts to amperes. This represents 
a stodgy inflexible inheritance, courtesy of Mr, TA Edison and his concept of 
electrical power generation. 

Nikola Tesla stood, almost alone, against Edison and managed to prevail with his 
alternating current system. Without the alternating current system, electronic 
things in the modern sense would not exist. 

This report will be concerned with some of the extensions and benefits of the 
alternating current electrical system. This study wilt limit H's scope to air 
core coil transformers at radio frequency and upward. The electrical 
power produced by this method is inverted to direct current and then to 
alternating current as required for popular usage. There are several 
important advantages of this system over conventional power generation. 

Start with two coils (separate-apart), one being a reactor coil (L-1) and a second 
coil (L-2}, being the reactant coil. Magnetic field fluxing (off -on of the electrical 
source) causes inductive reactance of L-1 which replicates by induction in L-2. 
Pulsing of the magnetic field (from L-1) in the presence of L-2, generates 
electrical potential. For example, should the L-1 coil have ten turns, with an Imposed 
AC. potential of 1,200 volts. This results in each turn of L-1 acquiring 120 volts of 
potential. This induced magnetic field, then replicates itself in each turn of the L-2 
coil. The L-2 coil may have one or many hundreds of turns. Modern encapsulation 
techniques makes high frequency and high energy controllable. 

Lef s take another important step in this air core transformer process, For purpose of 
discussion, let the value of inductive reactance at 60 Hertz's per second equal one. 
Each time the Hz's. are doubled, the effectiveness of induction is squared. At about 
20.000 Hz., when radio frequency is achieved, the electrons begin spinning 
free, outside of the inductor. They become increasingly free of the inverse 
relationship of volt-amperes. From this point on, they replicate by the inductive 

process as V A R That is to say, volts and amperes are equal, until resistance 
(work) is introduced. 

Therefore, additional, not previously available electrons become incorporated 
for a very large net gain in potential This gain is reall 

The quality of the grounding system determines the effectiveness of Ihis method of 
producing electricity , A handy reference to locate the negative grounding areas for 
power generation can be found in the Aeromagnetic Map Studies of the US. 
Geological Survey. They provide an excellent method for locating the best sites for 
optimum negative grounding areas, 

When this method is combined with the induction coil system, already described, it 
provides an electrical power generating system millions of times more efficient than 
any known conventional method. 

This new system {E.E.S. II) is uncomplicated, small in physical size and inexpensive 
to build. Technology required already exists, Maintenance is near zero, as there 
are no moving parts. Once operating, this system could last forever. 

Small mobile E.E.S. II units are presently available as replacements for the batteries 
used in electric automobiles. Larger E.E.S. II units can be provided as a 
replacement source of power for hotete, office buildings, subdivisions, electric trains, 
manufacturing, heavy equipment, ships, and; generally speaking; in any present 
day application of electrical power. 

Earth Electrical System II, Modular Units 

The system consists of three separate modules. Reverse engineering is used in 
matching the modules to the desired usage. 


1 . Preferably an off-the-shelf-unit similar to a TV flyback and/or automobile 

ignition type related coil {transformer). 

2. Ratio of input to output may be from less than 1/1 00 to greater than 1 /1 ,000 

A voltage m'pler may then be used. 

3. A connection allowing the high voltage output to pass onward through the 

induction coil L-1 and then to it's grounding. 



1. Two coils, the reactor coil L-1 and the reactant coil L-2. L-1 has a high 
voltage radio frequency capacitor between it and it's grounding. 

2. Input into the L-1 inductor is divided by the number of turns therein. The 
magnetic flux field provided from each turn of L-1 replicates itself as an 
electrical potential in each turn of L-2, 

3. L-2 may have one turn or many hundreds of turns, The net gain depends 
upon the number of turns in L-2. Output from L-2 is in V.A.R. With this type 

of output, volts and amperes are the same until work(rcsistivity) is 


1 . Inverts to d i rect current (D. C . ) 

2. Inverts to alternating current (A.C.), as desired. 

3. Provides customized output of electrical power ready for designated usage, 


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Speech presented the evening of 23 July, 1994 at the 
International Tesla Society Convention at Colorado Springs, Colorado 





Electrical Energy Generating System 
Patent Pending # 08/1 00,074, 2/4/92 

The word "electric" comes from the Latin word electron "amber". 
When rubbed, amber develops an electrical charge, which can be 
transfered to a dissimilar substance. During the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, a great deal of attention was centered on this 
attribute of amber. Amber was used to different the none-metals, 
Carbon-related substances and other none-metals, when subjected 
to friction, give up negative electrical charges, On the other hand, 
metals when subjected to friction, simply conduct the charge. 
It is important to note that approximately 70% of the Earth's exposed 
crustal portions ( surface ) consist of silicone related none-metals 
( electron doners ) and therefore becomes a direct source of electrical 
energy when properly agitated. 

Useful electrical energy is obtained by grounding into the Earth's 
none-metal crust and into it's atmosphere as a natural source of 
electrons. These electrons have accumulated from the solar plasma 
during the aging of the Earth for more than 4.5 billion years, at 
a rate exceeding 3.9 exajouSes per year, This indicates that the Earth's 
electrical field contains in excess of 17.6 X 1 to the 18 th power of 
cummulative exajoules of energy. One Exajoule is the approximate 
energy equivalent of 125 million barrels of oil. The electrical energy 
in one display of lightning is approximately ten trillion joules. 
Each 24 hours, the land portions of the Earth's surface yields 
in excess of 200,000 emissions, which involves more than 2,000 
quadrillion watt seconds of active energy on display. 

Page 1 


This physical phenomenon indicates the Earth's oust is an unending 
source of electrical energy. The surface area involved is a very small 
portion of the Earth's crust. 

J.C Maxwell (1891) suggested an active electron field gives rise to an 
associated magnetic field. Therefore, both are present with pulsating 
current. Early studies, involving observation of compass needles by 
microscopy, revealed that the needle vibrates as with attenuating current. 
More recent studies by A Nishida and others, confirm alternating current 
is common in the Earth's crust. 

C.F. Gauss (1777-1855) and H.C. Oersted (1777-1851), both were 
separately trying to define the Earth's electrical field with external 
influences removed, These external influences being solar quite periods 
and being remote from the land's surface. The air electricity background 

which which they measured varies with latitude. Their European 
measurements correspod to approximately the latitude of 
Wasington, DC They were measuring magnetic field flux as an 
indicator of negative electron energy active and present 

A related family of measurement is now presented Units of measure 
used to define flux fields include Gauss (one unit = 100,000 volts), 
Oersted (one unit = 50,000 volts), Tesla {one unit = 10,000 Gauss) 
and Gamma (one unit = 1/1 0,000 th of a Gauss). Much confusion exist in 
electrical related publications about these units. As presented here they 
are correct with values taken from their original definitions 

The entire surface of the Earth has been surveyed by aerial 
magnetometer, in most cases using gamma or nano testas. One 
gamma is the magnetic flux equivalent of 10 active volts of electricity. 
When this data is corrected for fleight height it becomes obvious 
that there are numerous areas where the gamma readings exceed one 
trillion gammas. Lightning strikes from the ground up are in that energy 
range. With knowledge of these electron enriched areas, the quality 
of Earth grounding, becomes enhanced. 

Page 2 

The correction necessary for land surface data when acquired from 
aerial magnetometer maps (using the inverse square law) requires 
that the remote distance be squared and then multiplied times the 
remote reading. As an example, the reading is 1,600 gammas and the 
flight height being 1,000 feet. Take 1,000 X 1,000 = 1,000,000 X 
1,600 gammas = 1.6 trillion gammas X 10 volts = 16 trillion volts 
equivalent for land surface data. 

INSERT AND DISCUSS, Aerial Magnetometer Map GP-948 
East- Central United States 

Present day methodology requires mechanical energy in exchange for 
electrical energy. Any required amount of electricity is available by 
resonate induction transfer from the Earth's magnetic and electrical 
fields. Each cycling of this resonate induction system pulls in additional 
electrons , generating energy in any required amount, A small amount of 
electrical energy is used to activate and pull into the system a much 
larger amount of energy, 

Ste a dy State U nsteady State 

Static "P re-E n er gy " Ki netic " En ergy" 

Mass attracts Mass, Gravity Expanding, Magnetic Energy 

Dominates Dominates 

Electrons moving apart 
Pressure decreasing 
Cooling effect dominates 
Less scattering of Energy 
Negative resistance 

Contraction, Electrical Energy 


Electrons moving together 
Pressure increasing 
Heating effect dominates 
Scattering of Energy 
Positive resistance 
Page 3 

Functions of active Electrons 
Electrons become active when placed inside the critical distance 
allowed by their negativity. 
Active Electrons provide: 

1 . Electricity 

2. Magnetics 

3. Gravitational thrust as in Electric Motors 

4. The source of Visible Light 

5. It's charge is Negative 

They move in a closed loop as seen in the Icon for infinity, not in 
a circle as shown in many books. 

One half of the loop consist of a magnetic impulse and the return 
half consist of the electrical impulse, This is seen as the classic 
sine wave of alternating electrical energy. 

A flash of light occures when two electrons suddenly find they are 
too close to gather. Daylight results from the impengement of 
Electrons in the Earth's atmosphere with the Electrons of the Solar 

My Concept of the Forces of Nature differs from the conventional. 
It consist of a weak and a strong force, each being additionally 
composed of electrical, magnetic and gravitational ( fields & waves ). 
Any two of the three constitute the third member. Gravity "B" of the 
weak force competes with humans on a daily basis. Gravity "A" of 
the strong force is the force that holds the Solar System and the 
Universe in place. Energy from the Electrons represent the weak 
force. Energy inside the Atom represents the strong force "A". 
Controlled resonate induction of any two of the three, changes into 
the third and is the motor that runs the Universe, We see this in 
the electrically induced magnetic thrust against gravity in electric 

Weak force is required to dislodge electrons and strong force ( atomic ) 
to dislodge protons. 

Unless dislodged, these particles are of little value in producing 
Conventional Electrical Energy. 

Page 4 

Functions of active Electrons { Continued ) 


1 , Electrical Energy with Associated Phenomena 

2, Energy Acquired by Magnetic and Electrical Impusing 

3, Electrical Energy 

Therefore, in conventional electrical energy production, the particle of 
importance is the negative electron. Electrons have a "grudging" 
relationship with other electrons. They like each other, especially 
at arms, length. Like potentials repel each other and unlike 
potentials attract To demonstrate this, take two batteries of the 
same type, but of a different charge level ( unequal potentials ). 
Put the plus and minus ends facing the same direction. Then 
with a volt meter, measure the electrical potential between the 
two negative ends and then the two positive ends. It is obvious 
that the " more negative " moves to the " less negative ", is the 
correct concept for electrical energy generation. Electrical Energy flow 
consist of a higher concentration of electrons moving to an area 
of lesser concentration. 


A major obstruction in reference to the correct function of electrical 
energy is the establishment's incorrect interpretation of Ohm's 
Law. The corrected version is: 

Volts = Energy Available ( Potential ) 

Ohm = Scattering, dissipation of Energy { Load ) 

Ampere = the rate of, dissipation / scattering of energy 

It is important to note that Ohm and Ampere are after the fact, 
and are not decisive except for the dissipation factor. High Voltage 
at low amperage simply means that the High Voltage is still intact 
for future usage. In no way is the potential diminished by 
low amperage. 

Page 5 


Dominos did not exist in England when the Laws of Conservation 
were originally put in place. Otherwise they might have been 
very different, For example let us take a long row of upright dominos, 
( many thousands ) and flip number one. The Energy required to 
flip # 1 must now be added with that of thousands more in order 
to have a correct assessment 

The Electron if s self is an excellent example of overunity. The 
electron provides various forms of energy continuously throughout 
eternity and is in no way dimenished. It simply cycles through 
the system and is available thereafter. 

In Electrical Systems, Electrons active at point "A" are not the same 
Electrons active at point "B". That is to say, the Electrons activated 
at the Central Electrical Energy Station are not the ones used at 
your house. When you ground your system by flipping the wall switch, 
you use your own electrons. In closed energy systems, electrons 
communicate with and and replicate the activity of the overbalanced 
potential, when provided with Earth and or Air Groundings. 

The number of Radios and Televisions running at any one time 
do not diminish, in any way the electrical output of the source 

For example, let now use use an Air Coil Resonate Induction System 
for the purpose of flipping some electrons. 

The flipping device ( reactor L-1 Coil ) is pulsed which then provides 
a resonate induction pulse, in turn this flips the electrons present 
at the ( reactant L-2 ) Coil. The energy input in L-1 is devided by 
the number of turns present. The induced magnetic pulsing in turn 
flipps the electrons in each turn of L-2. If more turns are present 
in L-2 than L-1 . there is a net gain in the Energy present, as 
demonstrated by the dominos above. The farads and henrys of 
the resonate system provide the resonate frequency when pulsed 
by an externa! energy system. A system shunt in the resonate 
circuit sets the containment level for energy potential. 

Page 6 


The Induction Process it's self provides an excellent example of 
overunlty. When comparing rate of induction the cycles per second 
must be squared and then compared to the square of the second 
System. Let's then compare the 60 ep.s, System with my 220 Mhz. 
Device, Energy produced at radio frequency has several major 
advantages over the conventional system. Ohm's Law when applied 
to the resonate air core radio frequency system is not functional. 

F or exam pie : Whe n reson ate the f o 1 1 owi ng i s true . 


Energy Potential as Volts 

, , — = Rate of Dissipation 



Super Conducter Conditions take over 

Energy Potential as Volts 

. = ( Rate of Dissipation ) * 

( Dissipation ) * 


This is named the VA.R, (Volt Amperes Reactive ) System. 

When compared to the Conventional Under Unity iron core 
transformer system, the results are over unity, 

It is strange that mechanical advantage as in pulleys, gears, levers 
and others which correspond to the electrical advantage above 
mentioned are not considered over-unity devices. 

Page 7 


Let us take a closer look at resonate induction, As an example, let 
a room full of ping pong balls randomly bouncing at a high speed 
represent the Conventional method of underunity energy generation. 

Suppose that by resonate induction the balls all move in the same 
direction at the same time When this occures a huge amount of 
energy not previously available is present, The resonate air core 
coil system lines up the electrons in such a manor that the energy 
factor is near 1 00 % , not 2 and 3 % as in Conventional underunity 
devices sanction by the establishment. 

Some other devices where overunity is common would be resonate 
induction circuits present in conventional radio tubes ( high plate 
voltage }, negative feedback systems found in Op-Amps and 
possibly others. 


Useful electrical energy is achieved when the electron density at point 
"A" becomes greater than at point "B", ( being the more negative 
moving to the less negative concept ). Coils moving through a 
magnetic field or vice versa causes this imbalance. 

The mind set of the professional electrical engineer is restricted to 
none- resonate and iron core coil resonate systems. Ohm's Law when 
applied to resonate air core induction systems, becomes, system 
resistivity ( impedence, Z ). "Z" at resonance becomes zero. Therefore, 
in this system, volts and amperes are equal until load { resistivity) 
is introduced. This is called the Volt Ampere Reactive ( VAR.) 
System. With impedence being zero, the System grounding is coupled 
directly into the Earth's immense electrical potential. 

Efficency of induction relates to the square of the cycles per second. 
Compare the ratio of the conventional 60 c.p.s. System and the 220 
million plus cycles of my Earth Electrical System II, 

Page 8 

SUMMARY (Continued) 

Electrons which cycle through this system, after being used, are 
returned in tact to their former state for future usage. 

Electron spin causes electrical current and magnetic lines of force 

The effect of current results from the unequal distribution 
of negativity { electrons ). 

Magnetic imbalance causes the gravitational effect, This is evidenced 
in electric motors by magnet-gravitational displacement of mass 
which causes the motor to rotate. 

The System is an extension of present technology 

The System and it's source utilizes magnetometer studies. 

This System ( Earth Electrical System II, E.E.S. II ) utilizes a fully 
renewable energy source. 

This System utilizes a non-poluting energy source. 

This System utilizes an universally available energy source. 

Endorsement and Certification of The System can be anticipated 
by States with pollution problems. 

Page 9 



Energy Consultant 

1. Decide frequency, Considerations are: (economy of size) 

a. Use radio frequency upward { above 20,000 Hz's). 

b. Use natural frequency ( coils have both capacitance and inductance), 
that is match the wire length of the wire in the coil to the desired 

c. Wire length is either one quarter, one half or full wave length. 

d, obtain wire length ( in feet ) use the following: If using one quarter 
wave length divide 247 by the desired frequency {megahertz range 
is desirable). If using one half wave length divide 494 by the desired 
frequency. If using full wave length divide 998 by the desired 

2. Decide number of turns, ratio of increase in number of turns sets the function, 

In the case of L-1 coil each turn divides the input voltage by the number of turns. 
In the case of L-2 the resulting voltage by division from L-1 is induced into each 
turn of L-2, resulting in an additive process, For example if the input into L-1 from 
a high voltage, low amperage module is 2,400 volts, L-1 , for example has 10 
turns. Then each turn of L-1 will have 240 volts of magnetic induction which 
transfers 240 volts of electricity to each turn of L-2. L-2 may be one turn or 
many, such as 100 to 500 plus turns, At 100 turns, 24,000 volts is produced. 
At 500 turns, 120,000 volts is produced, 

3. Decide the height and diameter of the coil system. The larger the diameter of the 
coil, the fewer number of turns required, and shorter {lowering of) in height. In the 
case of L-2 this results in lowering the amplification of the induced voltage from 

4. For example, 24.7 MHz is the desired frequency output from L-2. One quarter 
wave length would be 247 divided by 24.7 equals 10 feet of wire. The number 
of turns will be the amplification factor The coil may be wound on standard size 
P.V.C. or purchased from a supplier. The supplier is normally a ham radio supply 
source. Once the length is determined and the number of turns decided, move 
the next step. For example let each turn of L-1 have 24 volts and desired output 
of L-2 being 640 volts. Therefore L-2 needs 25.67 turns. It has been determined 
that the wire length for one quarter wave length is 10 feet. The number of inches 
in 10 feet is 120. Using Chart "A" supplied look for next higher number of turns 
showing (being between 20 and 30 turns with a 2" diameter coil). This tells us 

to use a 2" coil. If ready made as in the case of Barker and Williamson, 10 Canal 
Street, Bristol, Penna., 215-788-5551, they come in standard sizes of 4, 6 and 10 
turns per inch. For higher "Q" use wider spacing of the turns. These coils come 
in a ready made length of 10 inches. Select from the coil 30 turns and put input 
clamps on the base of the coil and at 30 turns. For exact determination of the 
correct position of the output clamp, use an externally grounded voltage probe. 
The node ot maximum intensity, being the natural resonate point. Off the she It 
multimeters are not radio frequency responsive. The easiest way to accomplish 
the above is to get from the hardware store or Radio Shack a voltage detector 
having a neon bulb system (Radio Shack Cat. No. 272-1 100b, NE2-Neon Lamps) 
will work. With your hand as a ground, move the wire extension of the neon 
lamp along the coil surface until bulb is brightest. 
This is the desired point of resonance and connection. 

5, The input power now needs consideration. A 2,400 H.V. module has been 
previously selected. This module can be made from a diode bridge or any 
combination of voltage amplifiers, The one used here is an off-the-shelf type, 
similar to those used for laser technology. 

6, Construction of the input L-1 coil. For purposes already determined there 
will be 10 turns, Length of the wire here is not critical. Since L-2 is 2" in 
diameter, the next off-the-shelf larger may be used for L-1 , Use a 3" diameter 
off the shelf coil having 10 turns to the inch. Remove (cut) a 10 turn portion 
from the larger coil. Use a L.C.R. meter and get the natural farads and 
henry's reading from L-2. Now do the same for L-1 . tt will be necessary 

to put a capacitor for matching L-1 to L-2 across the voltage input of L-1 . 
Also a spark gap in parallel is required on the return voltage from L-1 . 
A tunable capacitor of the pad type for L-1 is desirable. 

7, L-2 can be further enhance by having an Earth grounding from the base of 
the coil. The maximum voitage output will be between the base and top of L-2. 
Lesser voltage can be obtained at intermediate points from L-2. 






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The use of electricity is so common place that most people assume that it will always be 
available on demand. To fully realize the upon electricity, survey the ways 
electricity is being used each day in the home and on the farm and ranch. Electricity is do '"S 
more to increase work efficiency and promote enjoyable living than any other single factor. The 
use of electricity has grown to the extent that an increasing portion of the home or business 
budget is used if! paying for this source of energy. 

1. Definition of Electricity 

Electricity can be defined in several ways. The layman defines electricity as a source of 
energy that can be converted to lights heat, or power. Electrical engineers define electricity 
as a movement of electrons caused by electrical pressure or voltage. The amount of energy 
produced depends on the number of electrons in motion. 

2. The Manufacture and Distribution of Electricity 

Electricity is produced from gen era tors that are run by water, steam, or internal combustion 
engines. If water is used as a source of power to turn generators, it is referred to as 
hydroelectric generation. There are a number of this type located in areas where huge dams 
have been built across large streams. 

Steam is used as a source of power for generating much of today's electricity. Water is 
heated to a high temperature, and the steam pressure :s used to turn turbines which generate 
electricity. These are referred to as thermal-powered generators. Fuels used to heat the 
water are coal, natural gas, and/or fuel oil- 
Generators at the power plant generate from 13,E00 to 22,000 volts of electricity. From the 
power plant, electricity is carried to a step-up substation which, through the use 01 
transformers, increases the voltage from 69,000 to 750,000 volts. This increase sn voltage ts 
necessary for the efficient transmission of electricity over long distances. From the step-up 
substation, the electricity is carried on transmission lines to a step-down substation which 
reduces the voltage to 7,200 to 14,000 volts for distribution to rural and city areas. 

- 1 - 

Transformers at the business or residence reduce the voltage to 120 or 240 vol is to the meter 
of the customer. 

3, Common Electrical Terras 

In order to work safely and efficiently with electricity and have the ability to converse on 
the subject, the following terms should be understood: 

Ampere (Amp) - A measurement in units of the rate of flow of electrical Current, This 
may be compared with the rate of flow of water in gallons per minute. 

Example: A 60-watt incandescent lamp on a "120V circuit would pull 1/2 ampere of 
electricity (60 divided by E20 = .5 or i/2). (Formula: Amperes = Watts divided bv 


Volt (V) - A unit of measure of electrical pressure. A given electrical pressure (V) 
causes a given amount of electrical current (Amps) to flow through a load of given 
resistance, Voltage may be compared with water pressure in pounds per square inch in 
a water system. Common service voltages arc 120 volts for lighting and small appliance 
circuits and 240 volts for heating, air condi tinning, and large equipment circuits. 

Watt (W) - a unit of measure of electrical power. When applied to electrical 
equipment, it is the rate that electrical energy is transformed into some other form of 
energy such as light. Watts may be compared to the work done by water in washing a 
dr. (Formula: Volts x Amps ■ Watts) 

Kilowatt fKW) - A unit of measurement used in computing electrical energy used. 
Kilowatts are determined by dividing the number of watts by 1000 (1 K.W • 1 000 W), 

-2 - 

Kilowatt Hour (KWH) - A measure of electricity in terms of power in kilowatts and 
time in hours. A K.WH is 1000 watts issed Tor one hour. 

Alternating Current (A.C,) - Electrical current that alternates or changes direction 
several times per second. The direction current moves depends on ".he direction the 
voltage forces it. 

Cycle - The flow of electricity in one direction, the reverse flow of electricity in the 
othsr direction, and the start of the flow back in the other direction. 

The cycles, per second are regulated by the power supplier and arc usually 60, Most 
electric clocks are built to operate on (SO cycles. More or less cycles would cause the 
clocks to gain or lose lime. The present practice is to use the term Hertz (Hz) rather 

tlvm cycles per sec u rid. 



4'60 s«.-*m-V60 sac.^7— i.flSa sk.*J 

Direct Current (D.C.) - Electrical current flowing in one direction. Example: electrical 
circuit in automobiles and tractors. 

Transformer - A device used to increase or decrease voltage. 


1 [.D TURNS 

7,20 G vahs 


y§ — e^ 12fl'vahs 





01 LEV=L- 

- 3 - 

Single Phase - The most common type of electrical service or power available to 
consumers. One transformer is used between the distribution line and the meter. 
Usually three wires, two "hot" and one neutral, arc installed to provide 3 20V and 240V 
single-phase service. Single-phase service may also be supplied with three-phase service. 

Th ret -Phase ■ This type of service is designed especially for large electrical loads. Is is 
a more expensive installation due to three wires and three transformers. The important 
advantage of three-phase power is that the total electrical load is divided among the 
three phases; consequently, the wire and transformers can be smaller. Other advantages 
exist in the design of three-phase motors. 

Short Circuit - A direct connection (before current flows through an appliance) 
between two "hot" wires, between a "hot" and neutral wire, or between a "hot" wire and 

J, I f:iVrn.J. 

Voltage Drop - A reduction of current between the power supply and the load. Due to 
resistance, there will be a loss of voltage any time electricity f Jews through a conductor 
(wire). Factors that influence voltage drop are size of wire, length of wire, and the 
number of amps flowing. A drop in voltage may cause a loss of hear, light, or power 
output of a motor. It could cause motor burn-out unless the motor is properly protected 
(time-delay fuse). 

Fuse - A device used to protect circuits from an overload of current, 

Circuit Breaker - A device used to protect circuits from an overload of current. May 
be manually reset. 

Time-Delay Fuse - A fuse with the ability to carry an overload of current for a short 
duration without disengaging the contacts Or melting the fuse link. 

Horsepower (hp) - A unit of mechanical power equal to 746 watts of electrical power 
(assuming 74,6% electric motor efficiency), One hp and above motors are rated at 1000 
warts per hp; motors below one hp are rated at 1200 watts per hp. 

Conductor - The wire used to carry electricity (copper or aluminum). Copper and 
aluminum should not be spliced together due to their incompatibility resulting in 
deterioration and oxidation. 

Insulator - A material which will not conduct electricity and is usually made of glass, 
bafcelitc, porcelain., rubber, or the r mo-plastic. 

"Hot" Wire - A current-carrying conductor under electrical pressure and connected to a 
fuse or circuit breaker at the distribution panel. (Color Cods: usually black or red) 

Neutral Wire - A current-carrying conductor not under electrical pressure and 
connected to the neutral bar at the distribution panel. (Color Code: usually white) 

Grounding - The connection of the neutral part of the electrical system to the earth to 
reduce the possibility of damage from lightning and the connection of electrical 
equipment housings to the earth to minimise the danger from electrical shock. (Color 
Code; can be green or bare wire) 

Underwriters' Laboratory (U.L.) - A national Organization which tests all types of 
wiring materials and electrical devices to insure that they meet minimum standards for 
safety and quality. 

- 4 

National Electric Code (N.E.C.) - Regulations approved by the National Board of Fire 
Underwriters primarily for safety 5n electrical wiring installations, All wiring should 
meet the requirements of the national as well as the local code, 

A. Computing Electrical Energy Use and Cost 

If an estimate of cost for electricity used is desired, the name plate data on appliances and 
equipment and an estimate of operating time may be used. The following formulas should 
be used for determining watts, anips, volts, watt-hours, kilowatt-hours, and cost. 














(1) (W « V X A) W - 120 X 5 W 


KWH ■ 

(3) (Kw H m WAT yy) 

■=: i :-r>o 

1 000 


600 X 10 WATT-HOURS - 6000 

KWH - 6 


Electrical Circuits 

COST - 6 X & 


An electrical circuit is a completed path through which electricity flows. Insulated 
conductors (wires) provide the path for the flow of electricity. A water system and an 
electrical circuit arc simiiar in many respects. Water flows through pipes and is measured 
in gallons per minute, and electricity flows through conductors and is measured in amperes. 
A simple circuit is diagrammed here: 



( HOT ) 




5 - 

■ireuit includes a " hot " wirC * rcd 0l black ' ""^rig current from the source through a 
switch circuit protector (fuse or circuit breaker), and an appliance. The neutral wire 
i whi-c) conducts the current from the appliance to the source (ground). 

There arc (wo methods for connecting devices in a circuit-series and parallel. In a soics 
circuit all the current must How through each device in the circuit. Removing or opening 
any one of the devices in the series circuit win stop the How of current. In parallel circuits 
Ihc load (light's or appliances) are connected between the two wires of the circuit providing 
an independent path for the flow of current, and removing a lamp has no effect on the 
other lamps in the circuit. 

Switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are always connected in series. In most cases, except 
for some" Christ mas tree lights, appliances and lights arc connected in parallel. 





6, 120 Volt and 240 Volt Circuits 

The 120V circuit has one "hot* and one neutral wire with the switch and circuit protector m 
the hot line. The neutral wire from the appliance is connected to the neutral bar in the 
fuse or breaker box. For safety, the neutral wire should never be broken or interrupted 
with a switch or fuse. 



120 v. 




r'.f.".j"rrjl wire 




The voltage in a 1 20V circuit is measured with a voltmeter with one lead on the hot 

terminal and the other lead on the neutral bar. The number of amperes flowing may be 

measured with a clamp-on ammeter by encircling the hot or neutral wire with the jaws of 
the ammeter. 




- 6 - 

The 240V circuit has two hot wires and one safely-ground wire. Switches and fuses arc 
installed in the hot lines. The two hot wires arc necessary Tor the operation of 240V 
welders and motors. The safety-ground wire, connected to the metal frame of the 
equipment or motor and to the neutral har, does not carry current unless a "short" develops 
in the motor or welder. If a short should occur T one of the circuit protectors will burn-out 
or open, thus opening the circuit. 

120 V. 

— r~ 

— 240 V. - 



—a — 

no? wir» 

o o o 

i?Q v. 

ground wire 


...-.■ •^^f 

hot wire 



The voltage on a 240V circuit is measured by fastening a lead on the votl meter to each of 
the hot wires. Voltage between either hot terminal and the neutral bar will be one-half of 
the voltage between the two hot wires. The number of amperes flowing can be measured by 
clamping an ammeter around either of the hot wires. 

7. Safety Grounding Electrical Equipment 

Refer back to the 240V circuit and note the ground wire from the metal frame to the 
neutral bar. The following illustration shows proper safety grounding when operating a 
diill in a 120V circuit. The safety-ground wire may be bare, but a three-wire romex is 
recommended. Safety-ground wire in three-wire romex is usually green in solor. A current- 
carrying neutral wire should never be used for a safety-ground. Likewise, a safety-ground 
wire should never be used as a current-carrying hot or neutral wire. 

ho1 (black) 

120 V. 




ground safely (green) 

icjrral (white) 
'safety ground (bare) 


It shorl occurs, fuse will blaw and open the circuit. 


Using grounded receptacles and a safely-ground on all circuits w5M allow the safets- 
grounding of appliances when they are plugged into the outlet. An adapter rousi be used to 
properly ground appliances connected to receptacles not safety-grounded, if an adapter is 
used, the green pigtail wire must be connected to a known ground to give protection from 
electrical shock should a short occur. 


ground wire 

ground plug O dop*er for ground plug ,w/0 l|ot P ron 9 s for regular outlet 

A test lamp can he used to check a circuit completed between a "hot" wire and a neutral 
wire. Use the test lamp to check appliances for shorts. With the appliance plugged into an 
outlet, touch the appliance frame with one lead of the test lamp while the other lead of the 
test lamp is grounded to a water or gas line, If the test light does not burn, reverse the 
appliance plug and check with the test lamp again, If the light burns, a short exists. (Hat 
wire is touching the frame of the appliance.) Unplug the appliance and repair or discard it. 

8. Electrical Circuit Protection 

Electrical circuits should be protected from an overload of amperes, Too many amperes 
flowing through an unprotected circuit will generate heat, which will deteriorate or melt 
the insulation and possibly cause a fire. The number or amperes that a given conductor can 
carry safely depends upon she kind and size of wire, type of insulation, length of run in 
feet, and type of installation. Charts are available in reference texts giving allowable 
current-carrying capabilities of various conductors. 

The four types of circuit protection are common fuses, fusctrons (time-delay), fustats {two- 
part time-delay), and circuit breakers. Fuses are of two basic types, plug and cartridge, 

Common fuses contain a link made from a low melting alloy which is designed to cany 
current up to the rating of the fuse. Current higher than the amperage rating causes the 
link to heat above its melting point, When the fuse "blows", the link melts and opens the 




0-30 amperes 

31-60 amp0r*i 

61-100 amperes 

101-200 omptrts 

Fuscirons (lime-delay fuses) are made to carry a temporary overload, such as the overload 
caused by the starting of an electric motor. The fuse, however, still provides protection for 
the circuit, and a short circuit will melt the fuse [ink. If a common fuse is used, the fuse 
link will melt every time an electric motor starts. The use of a larger ampere common fuse 
will prevent the 'blow" resulting from the temporary overload, but will not provide 
protection for the motor or the circuit. 





Fustats, ncntampctatle fuses or the time-delay type, have a different site base and require 
a special adapter that is screwed into the standard fuse socket. After the adapter is 
installed, it cannot be removed. For example, the installation of a 15-ampere adapter allows 
only the use of 15-ampere or smaller fuses. 





. '■; . 

Circuit breakers eliminate the replacement of fuses and are commonly used even though a 
circui: breaker bo* costs more than a fuse box. Circuit breakers arc of two types, thermal 
and magnetic The thermal breaker has t*u contacts held together by a bi-mcial lalch. An 
Overload of current causes the bi-mctal strip to become heated, the latch releases, and the 
points spring open. After the bi-mctal strip cools; the switch is reset; and service is restored. 

:-'.'. llij.'i 





The magnetic breaker has contacts that arc held together by a latch which is released by the 
action of an electromagnet, The amount of current Howing through ihe circuit will 
determine the size of the electromagnet. This type of breaker is reset by moving the toggle 
switch to the "on" position. 

The following diagram shows the parts of a circuit breaker. 


projection ^- contact dtp 

electrkaf contacts 





thermal elemenl 

■ 10- 

9, No Fault Grounding 


Fuses and circuit breakers arc safety devices which limit current (amperage) in a circuit. 
Their main function is to protect equipment and wiring from overload. Ground fault 
circuit interrupters (GFI) are designed to protect humans, equipment, and/or electrical 
systems from injury or damage if electricity flows in an unintended path (a short). 

A GFI is a very sensitive device that functions by comparing the current moving in the 
"hot* wire with that in the neutral wire. If these two currents are not equal, a fault exists, 
and current is "leaking* out of the circuit. If the difference in current between xhe two 
wires is 5/1000 of an ampere Or B rca(cr < ln ": GFI will open the circuit, shutting off ihc 
power and eliminating any shock hazard. 

The National Electrical Code requires GFI's for all 120V. single phase, 15 and 20 amp 
receptacles installed outdoors, in bathrooms, and in garages for residential building*. A GFI 
is required at construction sites and some other appSicaTior.s. After correcting the circuit 
fault, the GFI may be reset for further use, 

A varietv of GFI equipment is made for 120 and 240 volt circuits. 







reset and lest bu'tor-s 







test burfon 


ym Cooper, Elmer L„ Agricultural Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. Dclmar Publishers, 
Inc., Albany, New York. 

Electrical Wiring - Residential, Utility Buildings, Service A:eas, AAVIM. Athens, Georgia. 

- 11 - 


Since one rarely encounters calculations in the emu system involving 
electric d«pole moment p, polarization F, electric susceptibility «, and 

metric displacement D> wes* 
the emu system. 

electric displacement D, we shall not define units for these quam 

A-3 Table of conversion factors 

The mks electrical units belong to the rationalized mksa system. In 
this system, permittivity of empty space has the value 

coulomb* / farad' 1 . 

4* x 8.98776 x 10* newton m 
and permeability of empty space has the value 

/* a -4^ x m-* weber C 





amp meter \~~ meter/ 
Both esu and emu arc unrationalized systems.* 

bee page 728 for 

instructions for use of the following table. 


Conversion Factor 


Unit of 
Numerator D en om : n a t o r 

Angle, plane 

. . 

1-745 X t0-« 


2.778 x 10-* 














Area, A 

1 X 10-* 
9.290 x 10-* 
6.452 X 10-* 





Capacitance, C 

1.113 x 10-" 
1 X 10* 

1 x 10-* 

1 X 10-" 



aratfarad (eau) 
abfarad (emu) 
microfarad, fit 
micromicrofurad, ft/d 

Charge, electric (or 
quantity of electricity) 

3.336 X 1Q- 1 " 


statcoulomb (eau) 
abcoutornb (emu) 

• For conversion of a formula in one system of unite to the aam 
system of unit,, «e W. R. Smythe, Static W Dynamic EUttridtv. 2d ed. New York 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Tnc. 1950, pp. 583-58*. 


Conversion Fnctot 







Current «, I 

3.336 x 10-" 


statamp (esu) 
abamp (emu) 


1 X 10 1 

SI 5.4 



pound/foot 11 
slug if not* 


(or length) /, L 


1 X 10- 1 
2,540 x 10-* 
1 X 10" - 

W . 






Electric displacement 
(or induction), D 


1/(1 2ffX 10") 
10*/4« - • 

coulomb/mete i* 

esu of displacement 
(no nunc assigned) 

emu of displacement 
(no name assigned) 

Electric field intensity, E 


I X 10' 

2.998 X 10* 
2.998 X 10" 


or newton/coulnmb 





Energy (or work), W 

1 x 10- 7 
3.6 x 10* 





ft lb 

Force {or weight), F 




9.807 X 10-* 


newt on 



pound (force) 
gram (force) 

Inductance, L or M 

1 x 10-* 
8.987 x 10 u 
1 x 10-* 
1 x 10-* 


abhenry (emu) 
stathenry (esu) 
microhenry ■ 



Magnetic field 
intensity Ji 

Magnetic flux, <P 

Magnetic ftire density, B 

force, mmf 


Pole strength, m 

Potential difference 

and Cmf, V, £ 

Power, p, P 

Conversion Factor 


L'ntl of 


I X 10» 


amp turn/meter 

amp tum/meter 

amp tumfmetcT 

oersted (emu) 

abamp tuni,inrn 
amp turn/inch 

1 X 10-* 

1 x 10-* 
2.998 X 10 1 




maxwell, or line 

kiJoltne (emu) 
esu of <£ 

(no name assigned) 

1 X 10- 4 

1.SS0 x 10'* 
2.99S X 10* 



1 x 10" 



+» x io- 1 

4* x 10" T 

1 X I0- 1 


1 x 10-' 
745 .7 



webcr.'meter 1 

gauss, or line/cm* 


cau of B 

(no name assigned) 

amp tutu 
amp turn 

abamp turn (emu) 
gilbert (emu) 


pound (em») 



pound (mass) 



(mka KenneUy)T 
amp meter 

{ink* Sommetfeld)t 


(mk» Kennelly) 

unit pole (emu) 
unit pole (emu) 

amp meter 

[mka SntTitritrfcld ) 



statvolt (esu) 
abvolt (emu) 








Conversion Factor 






Res [stance 

B.987 x 10" 
1 X 10-" 



statohm (e»u) 
abohm (emu) 


1 X io-* 
1 x 10- U 
8.967 X 10* 

ohm meter 
ohm meter 
ohm meter 

ohm cm 

abohm cm (emu) 

starohm cm (mix) 






1 x to-* 

2,832 x 10- 1 
1.639 x 10-» 

I x 10-* 

me let* 




f Not uted in thii text, see footnote 6, Par. 1 7-6. 
X Uted in this text. 

Instructions for use of table of conversion factors. 
In making a conversion of a quantity from one system to another, be sure 
that the proper units arc on the number to be coaverted (e, g., 1.52 radian, 
6.15 statcoulomb, 5 x 10 7 maxwell). Next secure the appropriate con- 
version factor from the table. The second column gives the con% r ersion 
number and the third and fourth columns give the units which belong 
to the conversion number; the third column is the unit of the numerator 
of the conversion number and the fourth column that of the denominator 
(e.g., the conversion factors 57.30 degree/radian, 3.336 x 10-" coulomb/ 
statcoulomb, 1 X 10~* weber/maxwell). Then perform the operation 
(multiplication or division) with the conversion factor which will cancel 
the units which you wish to ■eliminate and retain the units which you wish 
to retain. For example, suppose you know that the magnetic flux density 
of a certain magnetic field is B = 5.5 X 10* gausses and you wish to 
know the magnetic fiux density of this same field expressed in weber/m*. 
From the table, the conversion factor is 

1 x 10 _, weber/m^ , 

The unit to be canceled is the gauss and the unit to be retained is weber/m 1 . 

Don Smith. One of most impressive developers of free-energy devices is Don Smith who has produced 
many spectacular things, generally with major power output. These are a result of his in-depth knowledge 
and understanding of the way that the environment works. Don says that his understanding comes from the 
work of Nikola Tesla as recorded in Thomas C. Martin's book "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of 
Nikola Tesla" ISBN 0-7873-0582-0 available from and various other 
book companies. Much of the content of the book, such as Tesla's lectures, can be downloaded free from . 

Don states that he repeated each of the experiments found in the book and that gave him his understanding 
of what he prefers to describe as the 'ambient background energy' which is called the 'zero-point energy 
field' elsewhere in this eBook. Don remarks that he has now advanced further than Tesla in this field, partly 
because of the devices now available to him and which were not available when Tesla was alive. 

Don stresses two key points. Firstly, a dipole can cause a disturbance in the magnetic component of the 
'ambient background' and that imbalance allows you to collect large amounts of electrical power, using 
capacitors and inductors (coils). Secondly, you can pick up as many powerful electrical outputs as you want 
from that one magnetic disturbance, without depleting the magnetic disturbance in any way. This allows 
massively more power output than the small power needed to create the magnetic disturbance in the first 
place. This is what produces a COP>1 device and Don has created nearly fifty different devices based on 
that understanding. 

Although they get removed quite frequently, there is one video which is definitely worth watching if it is still 
there. It is located at smith free energy/ and was recorded 
in 2006. It covers a good deal of what Don has done. In the video, reference is made to Don's website but 
you will find that it has been taken over by Big Oil who have filled it with innocuous similar-sounding things of 
no consequence, apparently intended to confuse newcomers. A website which I understand is run by Don's 
son is and it has brief details of his prototypes and theory. You 
will find the only document of his which I could locate, presented as a downloadable .pdf document here and it contains the following patent on a most interesting device 
which appears to have no particular limit on the output power. This is a slightly re-worded copy of that 

Patent NL 02000035 A 20th May 2004 Inventor: Donald Lee Smith 



The present invention refers to an Electromagnetic Dipole Device and Method, where wasted radiated 
energy is transformed into useful energy. A Dipole as seen in Antenna Systems is adapted for use with 
capacitor plates in such a way that the Heaviside Current Component becomes a useful source of electrical 



Technical Field: 

This invention relates to loaded Dipole Antenna Systems and their Electromagnetic radiation. When used as 
a transformer with an appropriate energy collector system, it becomes a transformer/generator. The 
invention collects and converts energy which is radiated and wasted by conventional devices. 

Background Art: 

A search of the International Patent Database for closely related methods did not reveal any prior art with an 
interest in conserving radiated and wasted magnetic waves as useful energy. 


The invention is a new and useful departure from transformer generator construction, such that radiated and 
wasted magnetic energy changes into useful electrical energy. Gauss meters show that much energy from 
conventional electromagnetic devices is radiated into the ambient background and wasted. In the case of 
conventional transformer generators, a radical change in the physical construction allows better access to 
the energy available. It is found that creating a dipole and inserting capacitor plates at right angles to the 
current flow, allows magnetic waves to change back into useful electrical (coulombs) energy. Magnetic 
waves passing through the capacitor plates do not degrade and the full impact of the available energy is 
accessed. One, or as many sets of capacitor plates as is desired, may be used. Each set makes an exact 
copy of the full force and effect of the energy present in the magnetic waves. The originating source is not 
depleted of degraded as is common in conventional transformers. 


The Dipole at right angles, allows the magnetic flux surrounding it to intercept the capacitor plate, or plates, 
at right angles. The electrons present are spun such that the electrical component of each electron is 
collected by the capacitor plates. Essential parts are the South and North component of an active Dipole. 
Examples presented here exist as fully functional prototypes and were engineer constructed and fully tested 
in use by the Inventor. In each of the three examples shown in the drawings, corresponding parts are used. 








N / 
\ / 

<f f -T- * 






Fig.1 is a View of the Method, where N is the North and S is the South component of the Dipole. 


Here, 1 marks the Dipole with its North and South components. 2 is a resonant high-voltage induction coil. 
3 indicates the position of the electromagnetic wave emission from the Dipole. 4 indicates the position and 
flow direction of the corresponding Heaviside current component of the energy flow caused by the induction 
coil 2. 5 is the dielectric separator for the capacitor plates 7. 6 for the purposes of this drawing, indicates a 
virtual limit for the scope of the electromagnetic wave energy. 

Fig.2 has two parts A and B. 

In Fig.2A 1 is the hole in the capacitor plates through which the Dipole is inserted and in Fig.2B it is the 
Dipole with its North and South poles shown. 2 is the resonant high-voltage induction coil surrounding part 
of the Dipole 1. The dielectric separator 5, is a thin sheet of plastic placed between the two capacitor plates 
7, the upper plate being made of aluminium and the lower plate made of copper. Unit 8 is a deep-cycle 
battery system powering a DC inverter 9 which produces 120 volts at 60 Hz (the US mains supply voltage 
and frequency, obviously, a 240 volt 50 Hz inverter could be used here just as easily) which is used to power 
whatever equipment is to be driven by the device. The reference number 10 just indicates connecting wires. 
Unit 11 is a high-voltage generating device such as a neon transformer with its oscillating power supply. 


Fig.3 is a Proof Of Principal Device using a Plasma Tube as an active Dipole. In this drawing, 5 is the 
plastic sheet dielectric separator of the two plates 7 of the capacitor, the upper plate being aluminium and 
the lower plate copper. The connecting wires are marked 10 and the plasma tube is designated 15. The 
plasma tube is four feet long (1.22 m) and six inches (100 mm) in diameter. The high-voltage energy source 


for the active plasma dipole is marked 16 and there is a connector box 17 shown as that is a convenient 
method of connecting to the capacitor plates when running tests on the device. 

Fig.4 shows a Manufacturer's Prototype, constructed and fully tested. 1 is a metal Dipole rod and 2 the 
resonant high-voltage induction coil, connected through wires 10 to connector block 17 which facilitates the 
connection of it's high-voltage power supply. Clamps 18 hold the upper edge of the capacitor packet in 
place and 19 is the base plate with it's supporting brackets which hold the whole device in place. 20 is a 
housing which contains the capacitor plates and 21 is the point at which the power output from the capacitor 
plates is drawn off and fed to the DC inverter. 


The invention is applicable to any and all electrical energy requirements. The small size and it's high 
efficiency make it an attractive option, especially for remote areas, homes, office buildings, factories, 
shopping centres, public places, transportation, water systems, electric trains, boats, ships and 'all things 
great and small'. The construction materials are commonly available and only moderate skill levels are 
needed to make the device. 


1. Radiated magnetic flux from the Dipole, when intercepted by capacitor plates at right angles, changes into 
useful electrical energy. 

2. A Device and Method for converting for use, normally wasted electromagnetic energy. 

3. The Dipole of the Invention is any resonating substance such as Metal Rods, Coils and Plasma Tubes 

which have interacting Positive and Negative components. 

4. The resulting Heaviside current component is changed to useful electrical energy. 



This patent does not make it clear that the device needs to be tuned and that the tuning is related to its 
physical location. The tuning will be accomplished by applying a variable-frequency input signal to the neon 
transformer and adjusting that input frequency to give the maximum output. 

Don Smith has produced some forty eight different devices, and because he understands that the real power 
in the universe is magnetic and not electric, these devices have performances which appear staggering to 
people trained to think that electrical power is the only source of power. One device which is commercially 
produced in Russia, is shown here: 

This is a small table-top device which looks like it is an experiment by a beginner, and something which 
would be wholly ineffective. Nothing could be further from the truth. Each of the eight coils pairs (one each 
side of the rotating disc) produces 1,000 volts at 50 amps (fifty kilowatts) of output power, giving a total 
power output of 400 kilowatts. It's overall size is 16" x 14.5" x 10" (400 x 370 x 255 mm). In spite of the 
extremely high power output, the general construction is very simple: 

PVC pipe 


Neodymium magnet 


\ N | Small DC motor 

Area covered with 
glue and sprinkled 
with neodymium 



The device operates on a fluctuating magnetic field which is produced by a small low-power DC motor 
spinning a plastic disc. In the prototype shown above, the disc is an old vinyl record which has had holes cut 
in it. Between the holes is an area which was covered with glue and then sprinkled with powdered 
neodymium magnet material. It takes very little power to spin the disc, but it acts in a way which is very 
much like the Ecklin-Brown generator, repeatedly disrupting the magnetic field. The magnetic field is 
created by a neodymium magnet in each of the sixteen plastic pipes. It is important that the change in the 
magnetic flux between the matching magnets on each side of the disc is as large as possible. The ideal 
rotor material for this is "Terfenol-D" (tungsten zirconate) with slots cut in it but it is so expensive that 
materials like stainless steel are likely to be used instead. 


For Don Smith, this is not an exceptional device. The one shown below is also physically quite small and yet 
it has an output of 160 kilowatts (8000 volts at 20 amps) from an input of 12 volts 1 amp (COP = 13,333): 

Again, this is a device which can be placed on top of a table and is not a complicated form of construction, 
having a very open and simplistic layout. However, some components are not mounted on this board. The 
twelve volt battery and connecting leads are not shown, nor is the ground connection, the step-down 
isolation transformer and the varistor used to protect the load from over-voltage by absorbing any random 
voltage spikes which might occur, but more of these things later on when a much more detailed description 
of this device is given. 

Another of Don's devices is shown here: 

This is a larger device which uses a plasma tube four feet (1.22 m) long and 6 inches (100 mm) in diameter. 
The output is a massive 100 kilowatts. This is the design shown as one of the options in Don's patent. 


Being an Electrical Engineer, none of Don's prototypes are in the "toy" category. If nothing else is taken 
from Don's work, we should realise that high power outputs can be had from very simple devices. 

There is one other brief document "Resonate Electrical Power System" from Don Smith which says: 

Potential Energy is everywhere at all times, becoming useful when converted into a more practical form. 
There is no energy shortage, only grey matter. This energy potential is observed indirectly through the 
manifestation of electromagnetic phenomenon, when intercepted and converted, becomes useful. In 
nonlinear systems, interaction of magnetic waves amplify (conjugate) energy, providing greater output than 
input. In simple form, in the piano where three strings are struck by the hammer, the centre one is impacted 
and resonance activates the side strings. Resonance between the three strings provides a sound level 
greater than the input energy. Sound is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and is subject to all that is 
applicable to it. 

"Useful Energy" is defined as "that which is other than Ambient". "Electric Potential" relates to mass and it's 
acceleration. Therefore, the Earth's Mass and Speed through space, gives it an enormous electrical 
potential. Humans are like the bird sitting unaware on a high voltage line, in nature, turbulence upsets 
ambient and we see electrical displays. Tampering with ambient, allows humans to convert magnetic waves 
into useful electricity. 

Putting this in focus, requires a look at the Earth in general. Each minute of each day (1 ,440 minutes), more 
than 4,000 displays of lightning occur. Each display yields more than 10,000,000 volts at more than 200,000 
amperes in equivalent electromagnetic flux. This is more than 57,600,000,000,000 volts and 
1 ,152,000,000,000 amperes of electromagnetic flux during each 24 hour period. This has been going on for 
more than 4 billion years. The USPTO insist that the Earth's electrical field is insignificant and useless, and 
that converting this energy violates the laws of nature. At the same time, they issue patents in which, 
electromagnetic flux coming in from the Sun is converted by solar cells into DC energy. Aeromagnetic flux 
(in gammas) Maps World-Wide, includes those provided by the US Department of Interior-Geological 
Survey, and these show clearly that there is present, a spread of 1,900 gamma above Ambient, from reading 
instruments flown 1,000 feet above the (surface) source. Coulomb's Law requires the squaring of the 
distance of the remote reading, multiplied by the recorded reading. Therefore, that reading of 1,900 gamma 
has a corrected value of 1 ,900 x 1 ,000 x 1 ,000 = 1 ,900,000,000 gamma. 

There is a tendency to confuse "gamma ray" with "gamma". "Gamma" is ordinary, everyday magnetic flux, 
while "gamma ray" is high-impact energy and not flux. One gamma of magnetic flux is equal to that of 100 
volts RMS. To see this, take a Plasma Globe emitting 40,000 volts. When properly used, a gamma meter 
placed nearby, will read 400 gammas. The 1,900,000,000 gamma just mentioned, is the magnetic ambient 
equivalent of 190,000,000 volts of electricity. This is on a "Solar Quiet" day. On "Solar Active" days it may 
exceed five times that amount. The Establishment's idea that the Earth's electrical field is insignificant, goes 
the way of their other great ideas. 

There are two kinds of electricity: "potential" and "useful". All electricity is "potential" until it is converted. 
The resonant-fluxing of electrons, activates the electrical potential which is present everywhere. The 
Intensity/CPS of the resonant-frequency-flux rate, sets the available energy. This must then be converted 
into the required physical dimensions of the equipment being used. For example, energy arriving from the 
Sun is magnetic flux, which solar cells convert to DC electricity, which is then converted further to suit the 
equipment being powered by it. Only the magnetic flux moves from point "A" (the Sun) to point "B" (the 
Earth). All electrical power systems work in exactly the same way. Movement of Coils and Magnets at point 
"A" (the generator) fluxes electrons, which in turn, excite electrons at point "B" (your house). None of the 
electrons at point "A" are ever transmitted to point "B". In both cases, the electrons remain forever 
intact and available for further fluxing. This is not allowed by Newtonian Physics (electrodynamics and the 
laws of conservation). Clearly, these laws are all screwed up and inadequate. 

In modern physics, USPTO style, all of the above cannot exist because it opens a door to overunity. The 
good news is that the PTO has already issued hundreds of Patents related to Light Amplification, all of which 
are overunity. The Dynode used to adjust the self-powered shutter in your camera, receives magnetic flux 
from light which dislodges electrons from the cathode, reflecting electrons through the dynode bridge to the 
anode, resulting in billions of more electrons out than in. There are currently, 297 direct patents issued for 
this system, and thousands of peripheral patents, all of which support overunity. More than a thousand other 
Patents which have been issued, can be seen by the discerning eye to be overunity devices. What does this 
indicate about Intellectual Honesty? 


Any coil system, when fluxed, causes electrons to spin and produce useful energy, once it is converted to 
the style required by its use. Now that we have described the method which is required, let us now see how 
this concerns us. 

The entire System already exists and all that we need to do is to hook it up in a way which is useful to our 
required manner of use. Let us examine this backwards and start with a conventional output transformer. 
Consider one which has the required voltage and current handling characteristics and which acts as an 
isolation transformer. Only the magnetic flux passes from the input winding to the output winding. No 
electrons pass through from the input side to the output side. Therefore, we only need to flux the output side 
of the transformer to have an electrical output. Bad design by the establishment, allowing hysteresis of the 
metal plates, limits the load which can be driven. Up to this point, only potential is a consideration. Heat 
(which is energy loss) limits the output amperage. Correctly designed composite cores run cool, not hot. 

A power correction factor system, being a capacitor bank, maintains an even flow of flux. These same 
capacitors, when used with a coil system (a transformer) become a frequency-timing system. Therefore, the 
inductance of the input side of the transformer, when combined with the capacitor bank, provides the 
required fluxing to produce the required electrical energy (cycles per second). 

With the downstream system in place, all that is needed now is a potential system. Any flux system will be 
suitable. Any amplification over-unity output type is desirable. The input system is point "A" and the output 
system is point "B". Any input system where a lesser amount of electrons disturbs a greater amount of 
electrons - producing an output which is greater than the input - is desirable. 

At this point, it is necessary to present updated information about electrons and the laws of physics. A large 
part of this, originates from me and so is likely to upset people who are rigidly set in the thought patterns of 
conventional science. 

Non ■ Ionic Electrons 

As a source of electrical energy, non-ionic electrons doublets exist in immense quantities throughout the 
universe. Their origin is from the emanation of Solar Plasma. When ambient electrons are disturbed by 
being spun or pushed apart, they yield both magnetic and electrical energy. The rate of disturbance 
(cycling) determines the energy level achieved. Practical methods of disturbing them include, moving coils 
past magnets or vice versa. A better way is the pulsing (resonant induction) with magnetic fields and waves 
near coils. 

In coil systems, magnetic and amperage are one package. This suggests that electrons in their natural non- 
ionic state, exist as doublets. When pushed apart by agitation, one spins right (yielding Volts-potential 
electricity) and the other spins left (yielding Amperage-magnetic energy), one being more negative than the 
other. This further suggests that when they reunite, we have (Volts x Amps = Watts) useful electrical energy. 
Until now, this idea has been totally absent from the knowledge base. The previous definition of Amperage 
is therefore flawed. 

Electron Related Energy 

F.nen>v Available Method of" Storage O.mmnn Unit lJtrit& of Measure 

Electrical Capacitor/Coulombs Volts Flux Units 
.Spin / Gravity Momentum Torque Ergs 

Magnetic Coils/Amp. turns Amperes Flux Units 

Teslas, Gauss, 
Electrons Gammas, Oesteds 

Light Laser Lux ? Photons/Gamma Rays 

Impact / resistance 

Heat Various Fahrenheit/Celsius Temp 

Left hand spin of electrons results in Electrical Energy and right hand spin results in Magnetic Energy. 
Impacted electrons emit visible Light and heat. 


Useful Circuits, Suggestions for Building an Operational Unit 

1. Substitute a Plasma Globe such as Radio Shack's "Illumna-Storm" for the source-resonant induction 

system. It will have about 400 milligauss of magnetic induction. One milligauss is equal to 100 volts 
worth of magnetic induction. 

2. Construct a coil using a 5-inch to 7-inch (125 to 180 mm) diameter piece of PVC for the coil former. 

3. Get about 30 feet (10 m) of Jumbo-Speaker Cable and separate the two strands. This can be done by 

sticking a carpet knife into a piece of cardboard or wood, and then pulling the cable carefully past the 
blade to separate the two insulated cores from each other. (PJK Note: "Jumbo-Speaker Cable" is a 
vague term as that cable comes in many varieties, with anything from a few, to over 500 strands in each 
core. As Don points out that the output power increases with each turn of wire, it is distinctly possible 
that each of these strands acts the same as individual insulated turns which have been connected in 
parallel, so a 500-strand cable may well be far more effective than a cable with just a few strands). 

4. Wind the coil with 10 to 15 turns of wire and leave about 3 feet (1 m) of cable spare at each end of the 

coil. Use a glue gun to hold the start and finish of the coil. 

5. This will become the "L - 2" coil shown in the Circuits page. 

6. When sitting on top of the Plasma Globe (like a crown) you have a first-class resonant air-core coil 


7. Now, substitute two or more capacitors (rated at 5,000 volts or more) for the capacitor bank shown on the 

Circuits page. I use more than two 34 microfarad capacitors. 

8. Finish out the circuit as shown. You are now in business ! 


9. Voltage - Amperage limiting resistors are required across the output side of the Load transformer, 
are used to adjust the output level and the desired cycles per second. 


Isolation Transformer 

Tesla Coil System 

Spark Gap 

Capacitor Bank 

Useful Circuits from Nikola Tesla 

+ Transformer 

Tesla Coil System 

Spark Gap 

Capacitor Bank 

Tunable Coil System 
Insertable Movable L-l 


L, *> Coil System having 

desired Amperage Output 

Armature ( generator ) 
taking place of the L-l 
yields desired Amperage 

Don Smith's Suggestions: Get a copy of the "Handbook of Electronic Tables and Formulas", published by 
Sams, ISBN 0-672-22469-0, also an LCR meter is required. Chapter 1 in this book has important time 
constant (frequency) information and a set of reactance charts in nomograph style ("nomograph": a graph, 
usually containing three parallel scales graduated for different variables so that when a straight line connects 
values of any two, the related value may be read directly from the third at the point intersected by the line) 
which makes working, and approximating of the three variables (capacitance, inductance and resistance) 
much easier. If two of the variables are known, then the third one can be read from the nomograph. 


For example, if the input side of the isolation transformer needs to operate at 60 Hz, that is 60 positive cycles 
and 60 negative cycles, being a total of 120 cycles. Read off the inductance in Henries using the LCR meter 
attached to the input side of the isolation transformer. Plot this value on the (nomographic) reactance chart. 
Plot the needed 120 Hz on the chart and connect these two points with a straight line. Where this line 
crosses the Farads line and the Ohms line, gives us two values. Choose one (resistor) and insert it between 
the two leads of the transformer input winding. 

The Power Correction Factor Capacitor (or bank of more than one capacitor) now need adjusting. The 
following formula is helpful in finding this missing information. The capacitance is known, as is the desired 
potential to pulse the output transformer. One Farad of capacitance is one volt for one second (one 
Coulomb). Therefore, if we want to keep the bucket full with a certain amount, how many dippers full are 
needed? If the bucket needs 120 volts, then how many coulombs are required? 

Desired Voltage 

" Required frequency in Hz 

Capacitance in Microfarads 

Now, go to the Reactance Chart mentioned above, and find the required resistor jumper to place between 
the poles of the Correction Factor Capacitor. 

A earth grounding is desirable as a voltage-limiter and transient spike control. Two are necessary, one at 
the Power Factor Capacitor and one at the input side of the isolation transformer. Off-the-shelf surge 
arrestors / spark gaps and varistors having the desired voltage/potential and amperage control are 
commonly available. Siemens, Citel America and others, make a full range of surge arrestors, etc. Varistors 
look like coin-sized flat capacitors. Any of these voltage limiters are marked as "V - 1" in the following text. 

It should be obvious that several separate closed circuits are present in the suggested configuration: The 
power input source, the high-voltage module, a power factor capacitor bank combined with the input side of 
the isolation transformer. Lastly, the output side of the isolation transformer and its load. None of the 
electrons active at the power source (battery) are passed through the system for use downstream. At any 
point, if the magnetic flux rate should happen to vary, then the number of active electrons also varies. 
Therefore, controlling the flux rate controls the electron (potential) activity. Electrons active at point "A" are 
not the same electrons active at point "B", or point "C", and so on. If the magnetic flux rate (frequency Hz) 
varies, then a different number of electrons will be disturbed. This does not violate any Natural Law and 
does produce more energy out than in should that be desirable. 

A convenient high-voltage module is a 12 volt DC neon tube transformer. The Power Factor Correction 
Capacitors should be as many microfarads as possible as this allows a lower operating frequency. The 12- 
volt neon tube transformer oscillates at about 30,000 Hz. At the Power Correction Factor Capacitor bank we 
lower the frequency to match the input side of the isolation transformer. 

Other convenient high-voltage sources are car ignition coils, television flyback transformers, laser printer 
modules, and various other devices. Always lower the frequency at the Power Factor Correction Capacitor 
and correct, if needed, at the input side of the isolation transformer. The isolation transformer comes alive 
when pulsed. Amperage becomes a part of the consideration only at the isolation transformer. Faulty 
design, resulting in hysteresis, creates heat which self-destructs the transformer if it is overloaded. 
Transformers which have a composite core instead of the more common cores made from many layers of 
thin sheets of soft iron, run cool and can tolerate much higher amperage. 



V ~1 Not to Scale 

Patent Pending 1994 


Power Source; B - 1 Gelcell, 12 Volt, 7 Amp Hour 

D - 1 Kick back protection for L - 1 
L-l Bertonee, NPS- 12D8, constant bum Neon 
Tube transformer, Bertonee, Boston, MS 

Power Conditioner: C - 1, Capacitor or Capacitor Bank, 8,000 microfarads 
for 480 volts DC. R- 1, Resister used to set electron 
pump rate, frequency of the capacitor. Maintains the 
desired voltage level required to operate the system . 

Voltage Control V-l , Varistor, limits the voltage as required for 

the Output Transformer L-2. { 480 V @ 60 Amps) 

Output Transformer: Isolation Type, ( L - 2 / L-3 ) with R - 2 ( resistor ) 
correcting the output frequency to 60 CPS, 
being 60 UP and 60 DN ( 120 total). ( 28.8 KVA ) 

Useful Timing Formulas: 

T - 

L = 

R = 



T = RC 

in cycles per second 
in microfarads 
in milliheneries 

in ohms 


and T = 


The information shown above, relates to the small Suitcase Model demonstrated at the 1996 Tesla 
Convention, presented as Don Smiths' Workshop. This unit was a very primitive version and newer versions 
have atomic batteries and power output ranges of Gigawatts. The battery requirement is low level and is no 
more harmful than the radium on the dial of a clock. Commercial units of Boulder Dam size are currently 
being installed at several major locations throughout the world. For reasons of Don's personal security and 
contract obligations, the information which he has shared here, is incomplete. 


Booker, H.G., " Energy in Hlectromagjietism ", Institute of Electrical Engineer, 
Peter Pcregrinus, Ltd., 1982, I.S.B.N 0-906048-59-1 

Bleaiiy and Bleany, " Eeclricity and Magnetism "', Oxford Univershy Press, 
1991, I.SB.N. 0-19-851172-8 

Chapman and Bartels, " Geomagnetism ", 3 voL, Oxford University Press 

Hammond, P., " Energy Methods in Electrotnajyietism ", Oxford University 
Press, 1986, I.S.B.N. 0-19-859368-6 

Matsushita and Campbell, " Physics of Gcomagaeic Phenomena ", several 
vols.. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, 
Colorado, Academic press, 1967 

Nashida, A, " Geomagnetic Diagnosis of die Majmetospbere ", University 
of Tokyo, Springer- Veriag, 1978, I.S.B.N. 0-387-08297-2 

Rieger, Von Heinz., * Der Magnetiscb Kreis \ Siemens AG., Berlin and 
Mtmchen, Germany, I.SJ3.N. 3-8009-4719-6 

Rokiryansky, LI., " Geoelectrical investigation of the Earth's Crust and 
Mantel ", Institute of Geophysics, Kiev, U.S.S.R, Springer- 

Vcrlag, 19S2, I.S.B.N. 3-540-10630-8 

Vigoureux, P., " Units and Standards for Electromagnetics ", National 
Physical Laboratory, 1971, Springer- Veriag, 
3.S.B.N. 0-387-91077-8 

FinnclL Woosley, " Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and 

Receiver System. Energy Conversion Conference, Sept. 1981 
pp 266-271 

Glaser, " Satellite Solar Power Station " The Journal of Solar Energy 

and Technology, Vol. 12, No. 3., p. 353 . 

Denmum et al, "A Microwave Power Transmission System for Space 

Satellite Power", Energy Conversion Conference Conference, 
Sept. 1977, pp 162-168 

Naleis ctal, "Microwave Power B earning lor lone; range energy transfer" 
"Proceedings of the Sth European Microwave Conference" 
pp 573-578, 4 through 8 th. Sept., 1978 

Angrist, S. W., " Direct Energy Conversion ", forth edition, Carnegie-Mellon 
University, Pub, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, London, Sidney and 
Toronto, ISBN 0-205-07758-7 

Smith, D.L., " An Answer to Americas Energy Defict " , fifth edition. 

Pub. International Tesla Society, Colorado Springs, Co., 1996 

Aspden,H. " The Law of Electrodynamics", J, Franklin Inst., 287179 

Sctrrian, JD., " Anomalous Electron-Ion Energy Transfer M , Phys, Rev. Letters, 
vol 40, No. 7, pp. 451-454, 1978. 

Westingliouse R. & D,, "Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart"., Pub. The 
Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA 94123, Distributed by 
Edmond Scientific, Barrington, N.J. 06007 
Order # 609-573-6250 

I am most definitely not an expert in this area. However, it is probably worth mentioning some of the main 
points which Don Smith appears to be making. There are some very important points being made here, and 
grasping these may make a considerable difference to our ability to tap into the excess energy available in 
our local environment. There are four points worth mentioning: 


1 . Voltage 

2. Frequency 

3. Magnetic / Electric relationship 

4. Resonance 

1. Voltage. We tend to view things with an 'intuitive' view, generally based on fairly simple concepts. For 
example, we automatically think that it is more difficult to pick up a heavy object than to pick up a light one. 
How much more difficult? Well, if it is twice as heavy, it would probably be about twice as much effort to pick 
it up. This view has developed from our experience of things which we have done in the past, rather than on 
any mathematical calculation or formula. 

Well, how about pulsing an electronic system with a voltage? How would the output power of a system be 
affected by increasing the voltage? Our initial 'off-the cuff reaction might be that the power output might be 
increased a bit, but then hold on... we've just remembered that Watts = Volts x Amps, so if you double the 
voltage, then you would double the power in watts. So we might settle for the notion that if we doubled the 
voltage then we could double the output power. If we thought that, then we would be wrong. 

Don Smith points out that as capacitors and coils store energy, if they are involved in the circuit, then the 
output power is proportional to the square of the voltage used. Double the voltage, and the output power is 
four times greater. Use three times the voltage and the output power is nine times greater. Use ten times 

the voltage and the output power is one hundred times greater ! 


Don says that the energy stored, multiplied by the cycles per second, is the energy being pumped by the 
system. Capacitors and inductors (coils) temporarily store electrons, and their performance is given by: 


Capacitor formula: W = 0.5xCxV x Hz where: 

W is the energy in Joules (Joules = Volts x Amps x seconds) 

C is the capacitance in Farads 

V is the voltage 

Hz is the cycles per second 


Inductor formula: W = 0.5xl_xA x Hz where: 

W is the energy in Joules 

L is the inductance in henrys 

A is the current in amps 

Hz is the frequency in cycles per second 

You will notice that where inductors (coils) are involved, then the output power goes up with the square of 
the current. Double the voltage and double the current gives four times the power output due to the 
increased voltage and that increased output is increased by a further four times due to the increased current, 
giving sixteen times the output power. 


2. Frequency. You will notice from the formulas above, that the output power is directly proportional to the 
frequency "Hz". The frequency is the number of cycles per second (or pulses per second) applied to the 
circuit. This is something which is not intuitive for most people. If you double the rate of pulsing, then you 
double the power output. When this sinks in, you suddenly see why Nikola Tesla tended to use millions of 
volts and millions of pulses per second. 

However, Don Smith states that when a circuit is at it's point of resonance, resistance in the circuit drops to 
zero and the circuit becomes effectively, a superconductor. The energy for such a system which is in 
resonance is: 

Resonant circuit: W = 0.5 x C x V 2 x (Hz) 2 where: 

W is the energy in Joules 

C is the capacitance in Farads 

V is the voltage 

Hz is the cycles per second 

If this is correct, then raising the frequency in a resonating circuit has a massive effect on the power output 
of the device. The question then arises: why is the mains power in Europe just fifty cycles per second and in 
America just sixty cycles per second? If power goes up with frequency, then why not feed households at a 
million cycles per second? One major reason is that it is not easy to make electric motors which can be 
driven with power delivered at that frequency, so a more suitable frequency is chosen in order to suit the 
motors in vacuum cleaners, washing machines and other household equipment. 

However, if we want to extract energy from the environment, then we should go for high voltage and high 
frequency. Then, when high power has been extracted, if we want a low frequency suited to electric motors, 
we can pulse the already captured power at that low frequency. 

It might be speculated that if a device is being driven with sharp pulses which have a very sharply rising 
leading edge, that the effective frequency of the pulsing is actually determined by the speed of that rising 
edge, rather than the rate at which the pulses are actually generated. For example, if pulses are being 
generated at, say, 50 kHz but the pulses have a leading edge which would be suited to a 200 kHz pulse 
train, then the device might well see the signal as a 200 kHz signal with a 25% Mark/Space ratio, the very 
suddenness of the applied voltage having a magnetic shocking effect equivalent to a 200 kHz pulse train. 

3. Magnetic / Electric relationship. Don states that the reason why our present power systems are so 
inefficient is because we concentrate on the electric component of electromagnetism. These systems are 
always COP<1 as electricity is the 'losses' of electromagnetic power. Instead, if you concentrate on the 
magnetic component, then there is no limit on the electric power which can be extracted from that magnetic 
component. Contrary to what you might expect, if you install a pick-up system which extracts electrical 
energy from the magnetic component, you can install any number of other identical pick-ups, each of which 
extract the same amount of electrical energy from the magnetic input, without loading the magnetic wave in 
any way. Unlimited electrical output for the 'cost' of creating a single magnetic effect. 

The magnetic effect which we want to create is a ripple in the zero-point energy field, and ideally, we want to 
create that effect while using very little power. Creating a dipole with a battery which has a Plus and a Minus 
terminal or a magnet which has North and South poles, is an easy way to do create an electromagnetic 
imbalance in the local environment. Pulsing a coil is probably an even better way as the magnetic field 
reverses rapidly if it is an air-core coil, such as a Tesla Coil. Using a ferromagnetic core to the coil can 
create a problem as iron can't reverse it's magnetic alignment very rapidly, and ideally, you want pulsing 
which is at least a thousand times faster than iron can handle. 

Don draws attention to the "Transmitter / Receiver" educational kit "Resonant Circuits #10-416" supplied by 
The Science Source, Maine. This kit demonstrates the generation of resonant energy and it's collection with 
a receiver circuit. However, if several receiver circuits are used, then the energy collected is increased 
several times without any increase in the transmitted energy. This is similar to a radio transmitter where 
hundreds of thousands of radio receivers can receive the transmitted signal without loading the transmitter in 
any way. 

This immediately makes the Hubbard device spring to mind. Hubbard has a central "electromagnetic 
transmitter" surrounded by a ring of "receivers" closely coupled magnetically to the transmitter, each of which 
will receive a copy of the energy sent by the transmitter: 


Don points to an even more clearly demonstrated occurrence of this effect in the Tesla Coil. In a typical 
Tesla Coil, the primary coil is much larger diameter than the inner secondary coil: 

If, for example, 8,000 volts is applied to the primary coil which has four turns, then each turn would have 
2,000 volts of potential. Each turn of the primary coil transfers electromagnetic flux to every single turn of the 
secondary winding, and the secondary coil has a very large number of turns. Massively more power is 
produced in the secondary coil than was used to energise the primary coil. A common mistake is to believe 
that a Tesla Coil can't produce serious amperage. If the primary coil is positioned in the middle of the 
secondary coil as shown, then the amperage generated will be as large as the voltage generated. A low 
power input to the primary coil can produce kilowatts of usable electrical power as described in chapter 5. 

4. Resonance. An important factor in circuits aimed at tapping external energy is resonance. It can be hard 
to see where this comes in when it is an electronic circuit which is being considered. However, everything 
has it's own resonant frequency, whether it is a coil or any other electronic component. When components 
are connected together to form a circuit, the circuit has an overall resonant frequency. As a simple example, 
consider a swing: 

If the swing is pushed before it reaches the highest point on the mother's side, then the push actually 
detracts from the swinging action. The time of one full swing is the resonant frequency of the swing, and that 
is determined by the length of the supporting ropes holding the seat and not the weight of the child nor the 
power with which the child is pushed. Provided that the timing is exactly right, a very small push can get a 
swing moving in a substantial arc. The key factor is, matching the pulses applied to the swing, to the 
resonant frequency of the swing. Get it right and a large movement is produced. Get it wrong, and the 
swing doesn't get going at all (at which point, critics would say "see, see ...swings just don't work - this 
proves it !!"). 

Establishing the exact pulsing rate needed for a resonant circuit is not particularly easy, because the circuit 
contains coils (which have inductance, capacitance and resistance), capacitors (which have capacitance and 
a small amount of resistance) and resistors and wires, both of which have resistance and some capacitance. 


These kinds of circuit are called "LRC" circuits because "L" is the symbol used for inductance, "R" is the 
symbol used for resistance and "C" is the symbol used for capacitance. 

Don Smith provides instructions for winding and using the type of air-core coils needed for a Tesla Coil. He 

1. Decide a frequency and bear in mind, the economy of the size of construction selected. The factors are: 

(a) Use radio frequency (above 20 kHz). 

(b) Use natural frequency, i.e. match the coil wire length to the frequency - coils have both capacitance and 

(c) Make the wire length either one quarter, one half or the full wavelength. 

(d) Calculate the wire length in feet as follows: 

If using one quarter wavelength, then divide 247 by the frequency in MHz. 
If using one half wavelength, then divide 494 by the frequency in MHz. 
If using the full wavelength, then divide 998 by the frequency in MHz. 
For wire lengths in metres: 

If using one quarter wavelength, then divide 75.29 by the frequency in MHz. 
If using one half wavelength, then divide 1 50.57 by the frequency in MHz. 
If using the full wavelength, then divide 304.19 by the frequency in MHz. 

2. Choose the number of turns to be used in the coil when winding it using the wire length just calculated. 

The number of turns will be governed by the diameter of the tube on which the coil is to be wound. 
Remember that the ratio of the number of turns in the "L - 1" and "L - 2" coils, controls the overall output 
voltage. For example, if the voltage applied the large outer coil "L - 1" is 2,400 volts and L - 1 has ten 
turns, then each turn of L - 1 will have 240 volts dropped across it. This 240 volts of magnetic induction 
transfers 240 volts of electricity to every turn of wire in the inner "L - 2" coil. If the diameter of L - 2 is 
small enough to have 1 00 turns, then the voltage produced will be 24,000 volts. If the diameter of the L - 
2 former allows 500 turns, then the output voltage will be 120,000 volts. 

3. Choose the length and diameter of the coils. The larger the diameter of the coil, the fewer turns can be 

made with the wire length and so the coil length will be less, and the output voltage will be lower. 

4. For example, if 24.7 MHz is the desired output frequency, then the length of wire, in feet, would be 247 

divided by 24.7 which is 10 feet of wire (3,048 mm). The coil may be wound on a standard size of PVC 
pipe or alternatively, purchased from a supplier - typically, an amateur radio supply store. 

If the voltage on each turn of L - 1 is arranged to be 24 volts and the desired output voltage 640 volts, 
then there needs to be 640 / 24 = 26.66 turns on L - 2, wound with the 10 feet of wire already calculated. 

Note: At this point, Don's calculations go adrift and he suggests winding 30 turns on a 2-inch former. If 
you do that, then it will take about 16 feet of wire and the resonant point at 10-feet will be at about 19 
turns, giving an output voltage of 458 volts instead of the required 640 volts, unless the number of turns 
on L - 1 is reduced to give more than 24 volts per turn. However, the actual required diameter of the coil 
former (plus one diameter of the wire) is 10*12/ (26.67 * 3.14159) = 1.43 inches. You can make this 
size of former up quite easily if you want to stay with ten turns on the L - 1 coil. 

5. Connect to the start of the coil. To determine the exact resonant point on the coil, a measurement is 

made. Off-the-shelf multimeters are not responsive to high-frequency signals so a cheap neon is used 
instead. Holding one wire of the neon in one hand and running the other neon wire along the outside of 
the L - 2 winding, the point of brightest light is located. Then the neon is moved along that turn to find 
the brightest point along that turn, and when it is located, a connection is made to the winding at that 
exact point. L - 2 is now a resonant winding. It is possible to increase the ("Q") effectiveness of the coil 
by spreading the turns out a bit instead of positioning them so that each turn touches both of the 
adjacent turns. 

6. The input power has been suggested as 2,400 volts. This can be constructed from a Jacob's ladder 

arrangement or any step-up voltage system. An off-the-shelf module as used with lasers is another 

7. Construction of the L - 1 input coil has been suggested as having 10 turns. The length of the wire in this 

coil is not critical. If a 2-inch diameter PVC pipe was used for the L - 2 coil, then the next larger size of 
PVC pipe can be used for the L - 1 coil former. Cut a 10-turn length of the pipe (probably a 3-inch 


diameter pipe). The pipe length will depend on the diameter of the insulated wire used to make the 
winding. Use a good quality multimeter or a specialised LCR meter to measure the capacitance (in 
Farads) and the inductance (in henrys) of the L - 2 coil. Now, put a capacitor for matching L - 1 to L - 2 
across the voltage input of L - 1, and a spark gap connected in parallel is required for the return voltage 
from L - 1 . A trimmer capacitor for L - 1 is desirable. 

8. The performance of L - 2 can be further enhanced by attaching an earth connection to the base of the coil. 
The maximum output voltage will be between the ends of coil L - 2 and lesser voltages can be taken off 
intermediate points along the coil if that is desirable. 

Don provides quite an amount of information on one of his devices shown here: 

Without his description of the device, it would be difficult to understand it's construction and method of 
operation. As I understand it, the circuit of what is mounted on this board is as shown here: 

to mains voltage 

% 60 Hz 





to 9,000 volts 

®35.1 kHz , 







1 T"** 


-H- 1 

■jym — ° 


The electrical drive is from a 12-volt battery which is not seen in the photograph. Interestingly, Don remarks 
that if the length of the wires connecting the battery to the inverter are exactly one quarter of the wave length 
of the frequency of the oscillating magnetic field generated by the circuit, then the current induced in the 
battery wires will recharge the battery continuously, even if the battery is supplying power to the circuit at the 
same time. 

The battery supplies a small current through a protecting diode, to a standard off-the-shelf "true sine-wave" 
inverter. An inverter is a device which produces mains-voltage Alternating Current from a DC battery. As 
Don wants adjustable voltage, he feeds the output from the inverter into a variable transformer called a 
"Variac". This produces an AC output voltage which is adjustable from zero volts up to the full mains voltage 
(or a little higher, though Don does not want, or use, a higher voltage). The Variac is there so that Don can 
feed a reduced AC voltage to the next component of his circuit which is a commercial Neon-tube driver. The 
use of a Variac makes it essential for the inverter to be a true sine-wave type as a Variac cannot adjust the 
voltage of a square wave which the cheaper inverters generate. As the power requirement of the inverter is 
so low, the inverter should not cost very much. 

The neon-tube (or "gas-discharge" tube) driver circuit is a standard off-the-shelf device used to drive neon 
tube displays for commercial establishments. The one used by Don contains an oscillator and a step-up 


transformer, which together produce an Alternating Current of 9,000 volts at a frequency of 35,100 Hz 
(sometimes written as 35.1 kHz). The term "Hz" stands for "cycles per second". The Variac is there so that 
Don can lower that 9,000 volts. He has found that he gets great power output at lower input voltages. The 
particular unit which Don is using here, has two separate outputs, so Don connects them together and uses 
a blocking diode in each line to prevent either of them affecting the other one. Not easily seen in the 
photograph, the high-voltage output line has a very small, encapsulated, spark gap connected between it 
and a ground connection. This is to trap any voltage spikes by discharging them and restricting the output 
voltage. The device is commonly used as a lightning strike protection device and in Don's circuit it lights 
continuously when the device is running. The component looks like this: 

The output of the neon-tube driver circuit is used to drive the primary "L1" winding of a Tesla Coil style 
transformer. This looks ever so simple and straightforward, but there are some subtle details which need to 
have attention paid to them. 

The operating frequency of 35.1 kHz is set and maintained by the neon-tube driver circuitry, and so we do 
not have to do any direct tuning ourselves. That frequency is imposed on the "L1" coil winding which 
induces exactly the same frequency on the "L2" secondary winding. However, we need to pay special 
attention is the ratio of the wire lengths of the two coil windings as we want these two winding to be tuned to 
exactly the same frequency. 

Don uses a plastic tube as the former for his "L1" primary coil winding. As you can see here, the wire is fed 
into the former, leaving sufficient clearance to allow the former to be slid all the way into the outer coil. The 
wire is fed up inside the pipe and out through another hole to allow the coil turns to be made on the outside 
of the pipe. There appear to be five turns, but Don does not always go for a complete number of turns, so it 
might be 4.3 turns or some other value. The key point here is that the length of wire in the "L1" coil turns is 
exactly one quarter of the length of wire in the "L2" coil turns. 

The "L2" coil is a commercial 3-inch diameter unit from Barker & Williamson, constructed from uninsulated, 
solid, single-strand "tinned" copper wire. Don has taken this coil and unwound four turns at the centre of the 
coil in order to make a centre-tap. He then measured the exact length of wire in the remaining section and 
made the length of the "L1" coil turns to be exactly one quarter of that length. The wire used for the "L1" coil 
looks like Don's favourite "Jumbo Speaker Wire" which is a very flexible wire with a very large number of 
extremely fine uninsulated copper wires inside it. 

You will notice that Don has placed a plastic collar on each side of the winding, matching the thickness of the 
wire, in order to create a secure sliding operation inside the outer "L2" coil, and the additional plastic collars 
positioned further along the pipe provide further support for the inner coil. This sliding action allows the 
primary coil "L1" to be positioned at any point along the length of the "L2" secondary coil, and that has a 


marked tuning effect on the operation of the system. The outer "L2" coil does not have any kind of tube 
support but instead, the coil shape is maintained by the stiffness of the solid wire. 

The "L2" coil has two separate sections, each of seventeen turns. One point to note is the turns are spaced 
apart using slotted strips to support the wires and maintain an accurate spacing between adjacent turns. 
While the spacing might be to avoid sparking because of the high voltage generated in this coil, it must be 
remembered that spacing coil turns apart like this alters the characteristics of the coil, changing it's main 
energy-storing capability from "inductive" to "capacitive" mode. Every coil has resistance, inductance and 
capacitance, but the form of the coil construction has a major effect on the ratio of these three 
characteristics. The coil assembly is held in position on the base board by two off-white plastic cable ties. 
The nearer half of the coil is effectively connected across the further half as shown in the circuit diagram 

One point which Don stresses, is that the length of the wire in the "L1" coil and the length of wire in the "L2" 
coil, must be an exact even division or multiple of each other (in this case, the "L2" wire length in each half of 
the "L2" coil is exactly four times as long as the "L1" coil wire length). This is likely to cause the "L1" coil to 
have part of a turn, due to the different coil diameters. For example, if the length of the "L2" coil wire is 160 
inches and "L1" is to be one quarter of that length, namely, 40 inches. Then, if the "L1" coil has an effective 
diameter of 2.25 inches, (allowing for the thickness of the wire when wound on a 2-inch diameter former), 
then the "L1" coil would have 5.65 (or 5 and 2/3) turns which causes the finishing turn of "L2" to be 240 
degrees further around the coil former than the start of the first turn - that is, five full turns plus two thirds of 
the sixth turn. 


The L1 / L2 coil arrangement is a Tesla Coil. The positioning of the "L1" coil along the length of the "L2" coil, 
adjusts the voltage to current ratio produced by the coil. When the "L1" coil is near the middle of the "L2" 
coil, then the amplified voltage and amplified current are roughly the same. However, Don stresses that the 
"height" length of the coil (when standing vertically) controls the voltage produced while the coil "width" (the 
diameter of the turns) controls the current produced. 

The exact wire length ratio of the turns in the "L1" and "L2" coils gives them an almost automatic 
synchronous tuning with each other, and the exact resonance between them can be achieved by the 
positioning of the "L1" coil along the length of the "L2" coil. While this is a perfectly good way of adjusting 
the circuit, in the 1994 build shown in the photograph, Don has opted to get the exact tuning by connecting a 
capacitor across "L1" as marked as "C" in the circuit diagram. Don found that the appropriate capacitor 
value for his particular coil build, was about 0.1 microfarad (100 nF) and so he connected two 47 nF high- 
voltage capacitors in parallel to get the value which he wanted. It must be remembered that the voltage 
across "L1" is very high, so if a capacitor is used in that position it will need a voltage rating of at least 9,000 
volts. Don remarks that the actual capacitors seen in the photograph of this prototype are rated at fifteen 
thousand volts, and were custom made for him using a "self-healing" style of construction. As has already 
been remarked, this capacitor is an optional component. 

Don also opted to connect a small capacitor across the "L2" coil, also for fine-tuning of the circuit, and that 
optional component is marked as "C2" in the circuit diagram and the value used by Don happened to be a 
single 47nF, 8,000 volt capacitor. As the two halves of the "L2" coil are effectively connected across each 
other, it is only necessary to have one fine-tuning capacitor for "L2": 

There are various ways of dealing with the output from the "L2" coil in order to get large amounts of 
conventional electrical power out of the device. The method shown here uses the four very large capacitors 
seen in the photograph. Each of these four capacitors are 8 microfarad capacity with a 2,000 volt rating. In 
spite of the fact that they appear to be wired in parallel, they are in fact, wired in series to make a single 
capacitor of 2 microfarad capacity with an 8,000 volt rating. Don remarks that he has to be very careful to 
keep the voltage to the neon-tube driver circuit turned down in order to avoid getting more than 8,000 volts 
on these output storage capacitors. 

This capacitor bank is fed through a diode which is rated for both high voltage and high current, as Don 
states that the device produces 8,000 volts at 20 amps, in which case, this rectifying diode has to be able to 
handle that level of power, both at start-up when the capacitor bank is fully discharged and "L2" is producing 
8,000 volts, and when the full load of 20 amps is being drawn. The actual diodes used by Don happen to be 
rated at 25 KV but that is a far greater rating than is actually needed. 

In passing, it might be remarked that the average home user will not have an electrical requirement of 
anything remotely like as large as this, seeing that 10 kW is more than most people use on a continuous 
basis, while 8 KV at 20 A is a power of 160 kilowatts. As the neon-tube driver circuit can put out 9,000 volts 


and since the L1 / L2 coil system is a step-up transformer, if the voltage fed to the capacitor bank is to be 
kept down to 8,000 volts, then the Variac must be used to reduce the voltage fed to the neon-tube driver 
circuit, in order to lower the voltage fed to the L1 / L2 coil pair, typically, to 3,000 volts. 

to mains voltage to 9,000 volts 

@.60Hz ® 35.1 kHz 












T T+* 


-W- 1 




At this point, the storage capacitor bank behaves like an 8,000 volt battery which never runs down and which 
can supply 20 amps of current for as long as you want. The circuitry for producing a 220 volt 50 Hz AC 
output or a 110 volt 60 Hz AC output from the storage capacitors is just standard electronics. In passing, 
one option for charging the battery is to use the magnetic field caused by drawing mains-frequency current 
pulses through the output "choke" coil, shown here: 

The output current flows through the left hand winding on the brown cylindrical former, and when the 
photograph was taken, the right-hand winding was no longer in use. Previously, it had been used to provide 
charging power to the battery by rectifying the electrical power in the coil, caused by the fluctuating magnetic 
field caused by the pulsing current flowing through the left hand winding, as shown here: 

— o - 

oooo ; 

: ; 
; : 




The DC output produced by the four diodes was then used to charge the driving battery, and the power level 
produced is substantially greater than the minor current drain from the battery. Consequently, it is a sensible 
precaution to pass this current to the battery via a circuit which prevents the battery voltage rising higher 
than it should. A simple voltage level sensor can be used to switch off the charging when the battery has 
reached its optimum level. Other batteries can also be charged if that is wanted. Simple circuitry of the type 


shown in chapter 12 can be used for controlling and limiting the charging process. The components on 
Don's board are laid out like this: 

Sine-wave inverter 

8,000-volt capacitor 



diiver circuit 

LI / L2 sliding coil transformer 

Don draws attention to the fact that the cables used to connect the output of "L2" to the output of the board, 
connecting the storage capacitors on the way, are very high-voltage rated cables with special multiple 
coverings to ensure that the cables will remain sound over an indefinite period. Please bear in mind that 
the voltages here and their associated power levels are literally lethal and perfectly capable of killing 
anyone who handles the device carelessly when it is powered up. When a replication of this device 
is ready for routine use, it must be encased so that none of the high-voltage connections can be 
touched by anyone. This is not a suggestion, but it is a mandatory requirement, despite the fact that 
the components shown in the photographs are laid out in what would be a most dangerous fashion 
were the circuit to be powered up as it stands. Under no circumstances, construct and test this 
circuit unless you are already experienced in the use of high-voltage circuits or can be supervised by 
somebody who is experienced in this field. This is a "one hand in the pocket at all times" type of 
circuit and it needs to be treated with great care and respect at all times, so be sensible. 

The remainder of the circuit is not mounted on the board, possibly because there are various ways in which 
the required end result can be achieved. The one suggested here is perhaps the most simple solution: 

Step- down 

8,000 volte 











— ( ^ 



Mains voltage 




The voltage has to be dropped, so an iron-cored mains-frequency step-down transformer is used to do this. 
To get the frequency to the standard mains frequency for the country in which the device is to be used, an 
oscillator is used to generate that particular mains frequency. The oscillator output is used to drive a suitable 
high-voltage semiconductor device, be it an FET transistor, an IGBT device, or whatever. This device has to 
switch the working current at 8,000 volts, though admittedly, that will be a current which will be at least thirty 
six times lower than the final output current, due to the higher voltage on the primary winding of the 


transformer. The available power will be limited by the current handling capabilities of this output 

As the circuit is capable of picking up additional magnetic pulses, such as those generated by other 
equipment, nearby lightning strikes, etc. an electronic component called a "varistor" marked "V" in the 
diagram, is connected across the load. This device acts as a voltage spike suppressor as it short circuits 
any voltage above its design voltage, protecting the load from power surges. 

Don also explains an even more simple version of the circuit as shown here: 

D to mains voltage o to 9,000 volts 
@60Hz @ 35.1 kHz 








-e- 1 



Step- down 


IPt 1 


Mains voltage 



This simplified circuit avoids the need for expensive capacitors and the constraints of their voltage ratings, 
and the need for electronic control of the output frequency. The wire length in the turns of coil "L2" still 
needs to be exactly four times the wire length of the turns in coil "L1", but there is only one component which 
needs to be introduced, and that is the resistor "R" placed across the primary winding of the step-down 
isolation transformer. This transformer is a laminated iron-core type, suitable for the low mains frequency, 
but the output from "L2" is at much higher frequency. It is possible to pull the frequency down to suit the 
step-down transformer by connecting the correct value of resistor "R" across the output transformer (or a coil 
and resistor, or a coil and a capacitor). The value of resistor needed can be predicted from the American 
Radio Relay League graph (shown as Fig.44 in Don's .pdf document which can be downloaded free from the website). The correct value could also be found by experimentation. You will 
notice that an earthed dual spark gap has been placed across "L2" in order to make sure that the voltage 
levels always stay within the design range. Don remarks that he intends this particular device to be built by 
anyone who wants to, providing power for that person's needs and that some two hundred replications have 
already been built. 

Don also explains an even more simple version which does not need a Variac, high voltage capacitors or 
high voltage diodes. Here, a DC output is accepted which means that high-frequency step-down transformer 
operation can be used. This calls for an air-core transformer which you would wind yourself from heavy duty 
wire. Mains loads would then be powered by using a standard off-the-shelf inverter. In this version, it is of 
course, necessary to make the "L1" turns wire length exactly one quarter of the "L2" turns wire length in 
order to make the two coils resonate together. The operating frequency of each of these coils is imposed on 
them by the output frequency of the neon-tube driver circuit. That frequency is maintained throughout the 
entire circuit until it is rectified by the four diodes feeding the low-voltage storage capacitor. The target 
output voltage will be either just over 12 volts or just over 24 volts, depending on the voltage rating of the 
inverter which is to be driven by the system. The circuit diagram is: 

Step- down 

Varistor L 


Another device of Don's is particularly attractive in that almost no construction is needed, all of the 
components being available commercially, and the output power being adaptable to any level which you 


want. Don particularly likes this circuit because it demonstrates COP>1 so neatly and he remarks that the 
central transmitter Tesla Coil on its own is sufficient to power a household. 

The coil in the centre of the board is a power transmitter made from a Tesla Coil constructed from two 
Barker & Williamson ready-made coils. Three more of the inner coil are also used as power receivers. The 
outer, larger diameter coil is a few turns taken from one of their standard coils and organised so that the coil 
wire length is one quarter of the coil wire length of the inner coil ("L2"). 

As before, a commercial neon-tube driver module is used to power the "L1" outer coil with high voltage and 
high frequency. It should be understood that as power is drawn from the local environment each time the 
power driving the transmitter coil "L1" cycles, that the power available is very much higher at higher 
frequencies. The power at mains frequency of less than 100 Hz is far, far less than the power available at 
35,000 Hz, so if faced with the choice of buying a 25 kHz neon-tube driver module or a 35 kHz module, then 
the 35 kHz module is likely to give a much better output power at every voltage level. 

The "L1" short outer coil is held in a raised position by the section of white plastic pipe in order to position it 
correctly relative to the smaller diameter "L2" secondary coil. Again, it appears to have five turns: 


The secondary coils are constructed using Barker & Williamson's normal method of using slotted strips to 
hold the tinned, solid copper wire turns in place. 

As there are very slight differences in the manufactured coils, each one is tuned to the exact transmitter 
frequency and a miniature neon is used to show when the tuning has been set correctly. 

The key feature of this device is the fact that any number of receiver coils can be placed anywhere near the 
transmitter and each will receive a full electrical pick up from the local environment, without altering the 


power needed to drive the Tesla Coil transmitter - more and more output without increasing the input power - 
unlimited COP values, all of which are over 1. The extra power is flowing in from the local environment 
where there is almost unlimited amounts of excess energy. 

Each of the pick up coils act exactly the same as the "L2" secondary coil of the Tesla Coil transmitter, each 
picking up the same level of power. Just as with the actual "L2" coil, each will need an output circuit 
arrangement as described for the previous device. Presumably, the coils could be connected in parallel to 
increase the output amperage, as they are all resonating at the same frequency and in phase with each 
other. Alternatively, each could have its own separate output circuit with a step-down isolation transformer 
and frequency adjustment as before. If any output is to be a rectified DC output, then no frequency 
adjustment is needed, just rectifier diodes and a smoothing capacitor following the step-down transformer 
which will need to be an air core or ferrite core type due to the high frequency. 

Two DVDs containing video recordings of Don Smith's lectures are available for purchase via the website 
link: catalog.htm 

Patrick Kelly